E-commerce vs. Brick and Mortar Retailers

Last two decades have witnessed a series of changes in the way we communicate, learn, read, express, consult, buy, sell and run business. E-commerce has emerged as a totally new concept. Presently, High dependency on internet and mobile phone usage has revolutionized the way business reach people.

E-commerce connotes a method of conducting business through electronic means rather than through physical means. The term takes into account not just the act of purchasing goods through online platform but also other activities associated with transaction such as delivery, payment facilitation and service management. This means it is a ‘click and buy’ method using computers and mobile phones.

With the massive adaptation of common man to technology, the e-commerce industry continues to evolve and experience high growth in both developed and developing markets. The largest population within that market segment is 23-year-olds. That means millennials are big consumers of this market. Since, they have their prime earning years still ahead of them – about 30 of them, this time span makes millennials targets for all the strategies adopted by e- commerce.

The digital commerce market in India has shown remarkable growth from $4.4 billion in 2010 to $13.6 billion in 2014 whereas the global market is forecasted to reach $1.5 trillion in 2016.  The emanation of non-banking players in the payments industry and exhilarated emergence of innovative start-ups mark the expansion of the Indian e-commerce market at a rapid pace.

Nowadays, many people are working for longer hours than before and more people are entering or re-entering the labour market working part time. Lifestyles are changing. And this change has led to increased consumer demand for a choice of high quality goods and services which offers the opportunity to purchase and deliver in short time. In recent past, the e-commerce revolution has latched on to country to the extent that it has taken the shape of recent paradigm which the physical retailers have to confront. E-commerce or e-tailing is the recent challenge in the face of retailers and it has left them with no choice but to adapt to the changing ways of doing business.

Around 75 per cent of retailers have already adopted e-commerce in some form. Globally, retailing has already graduated to a multi-channel, omni-channel retail industry. According to a new study, the shopping malls are already witnessing lesser footfalls, leading to increase rate of 25% in vacancy and a drop of 30% in rentals during the last year. In view of such developments, over 45 % of shopping malls are likely to be transformed into non-retail space within next 15 years, as per the reports of Assocham.

Challenges Confronted by Brick and Mortar Retail

Flipkart, Snapdeal, Myntra and Jabong are some of the big names in e- commerce industry, confronting resistance from associates of modern retail .The chain of association include consumer goods makers, distributors and offline retailers. E- commerce grabs a larger share of the consumer’s wallet by swaying deals and discounts to attract customers.

The Assocham – PWC report has concluded the challenges of suburban sprawl, bad automotive traffic, rising fuel prices and the difficulty of time management in modern families have made visiting to the malls a difficult activity. To the contrary, improvement in logistics, internet speed and supportive devices have increased consumers buying online to a great extent. Similarly, as per the report, while the share of e-tail is expected to plunge from 2 percent in 2014 to 11 percent in 2019 (more than five times), the share of brick and mortar modern retail is expected to fall from 17 percent to 13 percent during the same period.


Heavy discounting from festival sales and daily deals, more online loyalty programs and growing popularity of smartphones and tablet computers among consumers are the key factors contributing to the growth of e-commerce. According to Knight Frank India CMD Shishir Baijal, “The e-commerce industry is booming .In addition to thathighincomes have led to a outburst in the internet culture that aims to change the progression of the brick and mortar modern retail segment.”

Lately E-retailers have been able to attract significant customers to online buying. These are not just limited to very exclusive categories such as consumer electronics, apparels, jewellery and lifestyle, books, music and video but also other categories such as food and beverages, departmental store, household services, home furnishings, healthcare, home cleaning, maintenance  and office equipment’s.

In Billion USD


FDI issue

The online retailers are allowed 100 per cent FDI, as most of them are run on the marketplace model, providing a platform for local vendors. On the other hand retailers, are eligible for 51 per cent FDI, based on the consent of state. Eminent Physical retailer and other chains argue that their stores should be regarded as similar in nature as they are also marketplace because some 22,000 small and medium companies sell their products through their stores. They questioned why (100 %) FDI couldn’t be allowed in their business as well. The law says FDI is allowed only in B2B (business to business) whether it’s online or offline, but in case of online business, ecommerce transactions are happening between business and consumer. This remains an unresolved issue for physical retailers.
Future of Retailers
Retailers are hampered with huge physical spaces that they are bound to pay rents for. Unlike the e-commerce players, they aren’t getting heavy funding from private equity investors; in any case, not for their brick-and-mortar business model. Due to the excessive discounts in sales offered by the e-commerce channels, the margins of retailers have been impacted to a great extent. Although, it is expected that discounting will continue for 12-18 months, the players are moving beyond making profit in order to build loyalty of the customers. In the light of this intensified competition, retailers are forced to adapt to the e-commerce opportunity.
The existing scenario portrays future, where India is going to see a model that is niether completely online nor completely offline. The retailers are likely to function through omni-channel —where they are able to address a customer’s needs through multiple touch points.


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Ugc Calls For Students Counselling System In All Universities

The Union Grants Commission urged all universities to set up a student counselling system to look after struggle and challenges faced by the students at the universities. The urgent step was taken after the massive outrage related to the suicide of the dalit research scholar Rohith Vemula at the Hyderabad University. UGC Secretary Jaspal Singh Sandhu has written to the VCs (Vice chancellors) of the universities in the nation for the setting up of the system which will be an interactive and target-oriented set up. It will involve students, teachers and parents to address general student concerns which include anxiety, stress, fear of change and failure to homesickness and other academic worries.
The teacher counsellors will be trained to work as the guardians of students and remain in close contact with the batch of students allotted to them for the year. They will provide emotional and intellectual guidance to the students at regular interval of time to boost the career building of the students. These counsellors also need to coordinate with the wardens of hostels and exchange personal details of students, academic record and behaviour patterns for prompt pre-emptive or corrective action. HRD ministry has decided to set up the system as a prompt response to the outrage which was triggered by the suicide of the Rohith Vermula, a dalit scholar at the Hyderabad University as an alleged issue of casteism. UGC has also asked the universities to observe 30th January as Martyrs day and also celebrate ‘Matribhasha Diwas’ on 21st February every year.

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Viteee 2016: Details Regarding Result

The entrance exam for VITEEE 2016 will be held from 6th to 17th April 2016. The exam is scheduled to be conducted in three different sessions, with time slot from 9:00 am to 11:30 pm, 12:30 am to 3:00 pm and 4:00 am to 6:30 pm. The forms will be available till 29th February 2016. The computer based test will have questions from Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics/Biology, and English.

The eligibility criteria for the candidates who are planning on seeking admission in the university are:

1. The student should have secured an aggregate of 60% in PCM/PCB in his/her HSC examination from any recognised board (for SC/ST and candidates from Jammu Kashmir and North-eastern states candidates only 50% in their qualifying exam). The candidates who have pursued regular, full time or formal education are equally eligible for the exam.

2. The student should be born on or after 1st July 1994.

3.  The students who have completed their HSC education from NIOS are also eligible for the VITEEE exam.

The application form for VITEEE 2016 can be accessed through online and offline method. The final date for submission of the forms along with corrections is 29th February 2016. The results are supposedly to be out on 29th April 2016. The application fee is Rs. 960 and the willing candidates need to pay it through Demand Draft (DD), Debit/Credit Card or Net Banking in favour of ‘VIT University’ to be payable at Vellore. The entrance exam for VITEEE is conducted for admissions in B. Tech programmes. The students who qualify the exam will be called for a counselling session in May for admission to various colleges of the university.

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Lifeline to the Nation – Indian Railways

We are celebrating 160 years of Indian railways. It was in 1853 that the Railways commenced from Bombay to Thane.

The railways were set up in India by the British to facilitate the transport of cotton. It was also intended to be used for quick deployment of troops in this hotbed of nationalistic activity.

Robert Maitland Brereton was primarily responsible for setting up the railway network thereby enabling travel from Bombay to Calcutta for the first time on 7 March 1870. The then Viceroy, Lord Mayo said in his opening speech, “It was thought desirable that, if possible, at the earliest possible moment, the whole country should be covered with a network of lines in a uniform system”

His desire came true by 1880 when the entire rail network had a combined route mileage of about 14,500 km (9,000 mi). With the help of about £95 million investment by British companies, it progressed in leaps and bounds. By the year 1896, engineers and indigenously built locomotives were sent to Uganda to put together their railway system. The first rudimentary Railway Board was constituted in 1905 which worked under the Department of Commerce and Industry.

Until now it was the steam engine which was chuffing away merrily around the country. The first electric locomotive arrived in 1908. The World War I took a massive toll and by its end the railways were in a state of collapse.

During the economic boom of the 1920s, the railways blossomed too. 66,000 km of railway lines carried over 620 million passengers annually. The Second World War again wreaked havoc on the Indian railways. Its workshops produced ammunitions and 40% of its rolling stock was exported to the Middle East.

The nationalization of Indian Railways in 1951 made it the world’s largest networks. The various zones NR, ER and NER were created. The standardization of passenger fares took place in 1952. The Platform tickets are 2 annas each and the rate for 1st, 2nd, Inter, and 3rd class was 30 pies, 16 pies, 9 pies and 5 pies per mile, respectively.

The last steam engine, ‘Antim Sitara’, rolled out of Chittaranjan Locomotive Works in 1970. They were replaced by the faster electric and diesel locomotives. In 1976 India bagged a Tanzanian export contract for supply of locomotives built in Diesel Locomotive Workshop, Varanasi.

A Railway Museum was set up in New Delhi in 1977 to display the various achievements down the ages. The Railways Act was formulated in 1989 to consolidate and amend the law relating to Railway.

Konkan railways is another prestigious project for Indian Railways. The largest railway project in this part of the world in the last five decades, flagged off the first passenger train on January 26, 1998. As of now it has a single line non-electrified route of 760 kms from Roha to Mangalore along the picturesque western sea coast of India.

Today, Indian Railways run long distance and suburban rail systems on broad, meter and narrow gauges. There are numerous locomotive and coach production facilities owned by it. Indian Railways service twenty nine states and seven union territories. There are limited international services to Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan too. With nearly 63,000 route kilometres fulfilling country’s transport needs, particularly in terms of long distance the passengers and goods traffic, the Indian railways plays an important role in India’s economic development.



This Article is taken from Disha’s The Knowledge Book.

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MAH CET 2016

MAH CET is an online exam which is conducted by the DTE (Directorate of Technical Education) for admissions in management colleges in Maharashtra. The exam is likely to be conducted in the middle March 2016 for MBA & MMS courses and the notification for the same will be announced around January 2016. The registration of the application forms for the exam is scheduled to start in the mid of February. Almost 200 institutes which come under various universities in Maharashtra seek admission through MAHCET. The Eligibility Criteria requires the candidate to have graduated with a minimum of 50% marks in aggregate (45% for backward class categories of Maharashtra) or a Bachelor’s Degree in any field from any recognized Indian Universities.

The entrance exam will feature 200 MCQ type questions from sections like Reading Comprehension, Verbal Ability, Logical Reasoning and Quantitative Aptitude. The time interval of the exam will be two and a half hours. No marks will be deducted for wrong answers. The application form for MAH CET 2016 can be submitted on mhcet-exams.co.in. The job of maintaining and enhancing the basic standard and value of technical education is entitled to the Directorate of Technical Education. It is responsible for laying down policies, guidance of the aided and private institutions, establishing developing government institutions, interacting with industry and national level institutions etc.

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CBSE Aggressive On Digital Interface For Interaction With Schools

CBSE Exam Details

CBSE is keenly working on the initiatives of digitizing the procedure of interaction with schools, and is aggressive towards the digital push. The digital campaigns taken up by CBSE schools are proving to be useful as they can now easily generate as well as download question papers of various exams with an exception of Class X and XII board with the click of a button. The marks secured by students are uploaded online and also allowing externals to do the same. With the advent of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) CBSE has used it to good effect and it has increased benefits in terms of time, vigour, manpower and assets are visible and appropriate for this unique initiative of the board. In the recent development CBSE Central Teachers Eligibility Test (CTET) has been initiated online authentication.

The launch of the new online web portal e-CBSE will be assisting the respective schools in generating roll nos. of students for their main exams and also will be helpful in making alterations in the students’ particulars and uploading of photos of students by using their IDs and passwords. The portal also allows the schools to upload the internal subject evaluation marks for Class XII students online which include 3 internal subjects each. The facility of online submission is provided to the private candidates too where they can submit their application form for Std 10th and 12th board examination 2016 online in place of the manual procedure. The private candidates are also liable to generate their admit cards and centre intimation letters online.

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The Role of Education in a Knowledge Economy


Socialist, capitalist, and welfare economies are fast becoming things of the past as the current world order is rapidly moving towards a ‘knowledge economy’. The 21st century is hailed by many as the ‘Knowledge Age’. The World Bank officially defines a knowledge economy as an economy that creates, disseminates, and uses knowledge to enhance its growth and development. In other words, it refers to a nation that uses data as its raw material, and transforms it into knowledge and expertise using human intelligence, technology, and analysis tools. In today’s highly interconnected and globalised world, knowledge resources such as trade secrets and technological expertise are as critical to a country’s growth as other economic resources. It is therefore in every nation’s interest to develop its knowledge capabilities to their full potential so as to be fully prepared to compete in the global knowledge economy.

The World Bank has recognised the four pillars that form the base of a knowledge economy: Economic Incentive and Institutional Regime (EIR), Innovation and Technological Adoption, Education and Training, and Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) Infrastructure. The EIR consists of incentives that promote the growth of entrepreneurship and the efficient use of existing as well as new knowledge. A system of innovation centres, such as firms, universities, research institutions, think-tanks, consultancies, and other organisations is required to put the global stock of knowledge to good use, to adapt it to local and national needs, and to create new technological solutions. Education and appropriate training of the population are needed to make it capable of generating, sharing, and utilising knowledge. And in the end, modern and highly accessible ICT infrastructure is required to facilitate effective communications and the dissemination and handling of information, which can be transformed into valuable knowledge.

India: A growing knowledge economy

The Indian society has traditionally laid great emphasis on knowledge. Some of the world’s major academic disciplines, religions, ideas, and theories find their roots in traditional Indian knowledge. Modern estimates suggest that knowledge will continue to drive growth in India for another 100 years. India’s swift transition to a knowledge economy is quite evident in the fact that a majority of the top twenty companies on the country’s stock exchange are knowledge-based, unlike only a few years before. Moreover, until six years ago, India did not have a single billion-dollar start-up (or unicorn) in the technology start-up space, and today it has eight. This has taken India from nowhere to being third in the world in terms of billion dollar start-ups. While most path-breaking innovations in the world which have emerged from the developing countries have begun to show their knowledge prowess on a global scale, as the highest number of international patents is lately being filed from China. India, with its unique blend of traditional knowledge and modern spirit of entrepreneurialism, can hardly be left far behind.

The evolution of economies throughout most of the world has followed a consistent trend: from pre-industrial agriculture-based economy to industrial economy, and then on from post-industrial service-intensive economy to the knowledge economy now. However, the trajectory was slightly different in India, as the services sector proliferated into the Indian economy at a much faster pace than the industrial sector. This made India a services-oriented economy even before the manufacturing sector could develop completely. According to 2014 estimates, nearly 60% of the Indian population is in the working age group (18-64). The proliferation of the services sector, paired with the Indian demographic profile, gives the country a potential edge over its competitors in the developing world.

The role of education in fostering knowledge economyEducation plays a driving role in promoting knowledge economy. Primary education ensures literacy and the development of basic cognitive skills, whereas secondary education lays down the foundation of a healthy, skilled labour force that is capable of learning new skills and adapting old skills according to need. Tertiary education further hones the individual’s intellectual capacity to produce knowledge and utilise it. To further supplement these capacities, there should also be provisions for lifelong learning that helps countries and populations adapt to changing market demands. In the industrial age, educational institutions were designed to produce worker-citizens. In the 21st century, on the other hand, schools can no longer just produce mindless labour. There is thus an urgent need for revision in the way education is imparted in order to make way for inculcation of new skills and the spirit of innovation in young minds. In India, even though near full enrolment has been achieved at the primary level, the quality and accessibility of secondary and tertiary education need serious attention. Once these educational structures are transformed and made accessible to all, nothing can stop India’s triumphant march into the global knowledge economy.

Reforming education using ICT can be used to give access to learning and education to those sections of the society that face exclusion, such as high school dropouts, illiterate farmers, and children with disabilities. It can also contribute greatly in improving the quality of teaching and learning outcomes in existing educational institutions. The Digital India initiative was launched in July 2015 with the aim of digitally connecting India so as to foster a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. The project includes initiatives like universal access to mobile and broadband connectivity, e-governance, e-healthcare, National Scholarships Portal, and the electronic delivery of many other services. Moving ahead, a larger goal for the state is to transform its role in education from that of the sole provider to a facilitator and quality assurer. There is also a pressing need to address the political economy of educational reforms, which often acts as a hindering force in the implementation of corrective policies and measures in the education sector.

Need to move from knowledge economy to knowledge society All said and done, it should be kept in view that ‘knowledge economy’ and ‘knowledge society’ are two completely distinct and antithetical terms. While knowledge economy gives rise to the concept of intellectual property rights, wherein knowledge can be patented and monopolised by the originator, a knowledge society can only be established when people at the bottom rungs of society are able to benefit from this knowledge. Social and digital inclusion is the fundamental criteria for a society to qualify as a knowledge society. For instance, while it is imperative that patenting be allowed to make sure innovation does not get discouraged, at the same time it is also necessary to reduce the number of years for which patents are granted so as to make knowledge accessible to all.

Just as the 19th century is touted to have been the ‘European century’, and the 20th century the ‘American century’, the 21st century could potentially be the ‘Indian century’. But for that, India needs to look at itself in a whole new light. The nation needs to expand itself as a knowledge economy built on innovation, skills, and technology, where the government, corporates, educators and start-ups come together in the pursuit of economic collaboration and advancement. And education will undoubtedly play an essential role in building these institutions and ensuring effective linkages between them.

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Ice Age – The Encounter with Glacial Episodes

Ice Age continues to be an intriguing phase in the history of mankind with its causes being debated worldwide. But what exactly is Ice Age? It is a long interval of time, ranging from millions to tens of millions of years, when global temperatures fluctuated, with large areas of the Earth covered by continental ice sheets and alpine glaciers. During the last 2.6 million years, there have been five documented ice ages: the Huronian, Cryogenian, Andean-Saharan, Karoo Ice Age and the Quaternary glaciation. The recent glacial period in human experience (often referred to as the Ice Age), took place during the concluding years of the Pleistocene- which originated 1.8 million years ago and concluded 11,700 years ago.

As mentioned, scientists have not been able to decipher the exact causes behind this. However, they consider that the fluctuations in the amount of incoming solar radiation, that is, insolation and the changing positions of constantly moving continents, which affect ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns, are some of the key factors. Initially, Serbian scientist, Milutin Milankovitch in 1938 explained Earth’s long-term climate fluctuations caused by Earth’s ever changing position as compared to the Sun. This is now known as Milankovitch cycles. This cycle explained that the ice ages that occurred in the geological past of the Earth, as well as the climate changes on the Earth, can be expected in the future.

In 2009, researchers from Oregon State University and other institutions pointed out the slight shifts in solar radiation caused by predictable transition in Earth’s rotation and axis in the Science journal. These shifts caused global ice levels to reach their peak about 26,000 years ago, stabilize for 7,000 years and then begin melting 19,000 years ago, eventually bringing closure to the last ice age.

It was Louis Agassiz, Harvard University professor, who proposed the subjugation of Ice Age on Earth. He put forward the theory that the rocks that dot New England’s landscape were shaped and deposited by glaciers. According to him, the erratic large boulder was left by a glacier; however, this theory was rebuked by his colleagues. His theory was proved correct to a certain extent because of the granite composition in a glacier, a rock that one will not find in that area.

But the term ‘ice age’ was coined by German botanist, Karl Friedrich Schimper. His fieldwork in the Bavarian Alps made him conclude that ice is the means of transport for the boulders in the alpine upland. He also proposed that there must have been global times of obliteration with a cold climate and frozen water.

There was also a time when the whole earth was covered in ice. Scientists have named this phenomenon as Snowball earth which signifies the coldest global climate imaginable. It is assumed that if any such thing happens the whole earth would be covered in ice and the global temperature would drop to
–50° C. The drop in temperature would be caused as solar radiation would be reflected back to the space by the icy surface.

There lies another pertinent question about ice age. Did human beings exist during this time ? Surprisingly, yes, there were three species of human beings during this epoch. First, Homo Erectus, who had been around for 1.8 million years, even survived the previous ice ages, but got extinct around 70,000 years back. Second, Neanderthals, who had been around for 3,50,000 years but with the disappearance of the giant ice sheets, the last communities of the Neanderthals died in Gibralter. Finally, modern man evolved around 200,000 years ago. The modern man commenced on an unprecedented level of cultural and technical achievement in a short period of time.

Now let’s talk about the climate during the ice age. Due to the harsh cold, people living in that age used animal skin to prepare their clothes and build their homes out of bones. It has been found that even centuries ago, they were quiet modern. They burrowed in ice to store food and designed sophisticated tools. Their food was cooked and not raw. They buried their dead and also painted their caves. For obtaining meat for consumption, they either trapped and killed the animals or drove them off the cliffs. As far as the flora goes, land was mainly bare apart from a little vegetation that could withstand the freezing cold. Signs of such herbs, shrubs and trees are still visible in Asia, North America and Europe.

The fauna found during the ice age were gigantic. The wolf like carnivorous, Andrewsarchus was around 13-feet long. Baluchitherium, the largest land mammal, was a hornless rhinoceros found during this era. Another species that was found during this age was the cave lion around 25% bigger than that found in the present times.

Mammoths evolved for about 1.5 million years, adjusting to the unstable climatic condition during the ice age. With each cycle of glaciation and deglaciation, habitats had to go through the process of disruption settlement and again disruption. The glaciers were formed with the amalgamation of ice to form thick continental glaciers, which at times in their flow crushed the standing forests.

With so much attention on global warming, the prospect of ice age has been all but forgotten. However, in the given circumstances, the catastrophe of ice age would know no bounds. Due to the greenhouse effect, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere neither allows the sunlight to penetrate nor the infra-red rays to escape the atmosphere. Although scientists today, have not left any stone unturned to tell us about the importance of growing temperature of the earth, this might not be sufficient to avert the destined.

We need to be aware of similar repercussions that our earth might have to face if we do not deal with the climate change situation effectively. It may not only lead to an unpredictable crisis in the food, water, energy and medical supply chains but could also lead to failure in the state machinery, cause famines, flood or disease could lead to international or internal conflicts. It’s better late than never to initiate efforts that may not lead to any untoward consequences that our human beings have faced earlier in the ice age and are shadowed by the same even now.

This Article is taken from Disha’s The Knowledge Book.

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Knowledge is of no value unless you put it into practice. – Anton Chekhov

Disha Mega Quiz, is an initiative by Disha Publication to encourage students for competition and put their knowledge into practice.

The objective of Disha Mega quiz is to encourage students to look beyond their textual knowledge and establish a relationship between theory and application of the learnt concepts. Quiz is a brief assessment or tool to measure the growth in the knowledge, abilities and skill. Along with other benefits, it offers the opportunity to win hundreds of prizes worth Lacs.

Exciting Prizes to be won are Health Bands, Mobiles, Watches, Bags, Books and eBooks.. The purpose of this quiz is to encourage confidence, so in order to boost it, all the registered participants appearing for the quiz are going to receive a participation prize in the form of an e-book.

This online Mega Quiz competition is starting from 8th Feb 2016 to 12th Feb 2016. School students and aspirants of competitive examinations are required to register online. Registrations are open from 29th Jan to 10th Feb 2016

This Mega Quiz has 2 levels.

1)       Level 1 is 3 days event starting from 8th Feb 2016 to 10th Feb 2016.

Participants can attempt the first level of quiz at any time between  8th Feb 2016 to 10th Feb 2016.

2)      Level 2 is a 2 days event of 12Feb,2016 and 13 feb,2016.Only those students who clear Level 1 of the competition will be able to participate in second level. The second or final level of quiz will be held on 12th.

The winners of final level of quiz will be announced on 13th Feb 2016.

Quiz, at both the levels , will be a general aptitude test based on following 5 sections

  • English
  • Quant
  • General Knowledge
  • Data interpretation
  • Reasoning

The duration of the quiz at both the levels is 20 mins. The participants are required to complete and submit the quiz within 20 mins.

The most attractive feature of the quiz is this that there is a prize for the winners at both the levels and winners at both the levels of the quiz will be informed about it through criteria decided by Disha Publication all students must grab this opportunity to win the prizes and make their teachers, family and friends proud of them.

So what are you waiting for? Grab the opportunity to test your knowledge and treat yourself with an assured prize. Since the quiz offers hundreds of exciting prizes, so there is a scope for many students to win exciting prizes along with the assured prize offered to all the participants. Put your knowledge into practice and make it more valuable. For more information detailed click on the given below “Online Mega Quiz” image;


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UPSC CDS (I) 2015: Final Results Out

UPSC has announced the results of CDS (I) 2015. The aspirants will be able to download their results from the official website. The number of qualified candidates is 167 which include 137 man and 30 women who have qualified the exam based on the results of the CDS (I)-2015. The marks scored by the candidates are going to be available in 15 days after the date of declaration of the final result on the official UPSC web-site for duration of 60 days.

The selection of candidates for admission will be in two categories which include Officers’ Training Academy (OTA), Chennai on behalf of the 103rd Short Service Commission Course (Men) and the 17th Short Service Commission Women (Non-Technical) Course. The 103rd Short Service Commission Course (Men) comprises of the names of the candidates who were earlier recommended based on the result of the same examination for admission to the IMA, Dehradun; Air Force Academy in Hyderabad and Indian Naval Academy in Ezhimala. The number of vacancies as announced by the Government, for 103rd Short Service Commission Course (Men) is 175; and for 17th Short Service Commission Women (Non-Technical) Course are 12.

The end result of the Medical Examination of the aspirants has not been taken into account while preparing the merit list. The contention of all the candidates is merely provisional and the verification of the Date of Birth along with the Educational Qualification of the candidates will be scrutinized by AHQ. The candidates can obtain further information regarding their results through the web-site; www.upsc.gov.in.

Also get the top 50 fortnight educational news for Academics & Competitive Exams, which is given below in the image . For more detailed information click on given below “News Box” image;





What is Black Money?

Money being the medium of transaction in society is present in apparent and hidden form. The apparent form is legal and open for taxation while the second form is not exposed to taxation and is illegal. The unaccounted money that comes through underhand earning of dishonest people is termed as black money or evaded money.

The way in which our economy has been operating and the avoidance of tax had led to concentration of wealth and this has further led to increase of wealth in the hands of few people. This has encouraged more black money, black marketing and smuggling etc.

Black money can be in various forms like shares, bonds, securities, instruments of other forms, real estate houses, shops, plots and other assets like cars, gold, silver, diamonds or jewellery as well.

Now looking at our country, it has been estimated that over 200 Crores of black money is created every year. Corruption and prevailing illegal activities have contributed a large share to this money while avoidance of income and sales tax is one of the biggest means which leads to increase in black money.

About 627 Indians with their accounts in HSBC bank, Geneva; were reported to the Supreme Court by the centre. A special investigation team (SIT) was formed in May comprising of the former SC judge MB Shah and highest level officials from financial and economic departments and law enforcement agencies. SIT was assigned the task of probing tax on suspected black money till March next year. On the same, Prime Minister Narendra Modi plainly declared the prosecution of tax dodgers and enforced on bringing the money stashed in tax havens back to the country.

Under the supervision of SIT, around ` 35,000Crores have already been recovered from some of the account holders. The assessment proceedings will complete the tenure by March 31st and till then, a net worth ` 6500 Crores is expected to be fetched by the department.

France has shared information of half of the 628 Swiss bank accounts with India, which were either legitimate accounts or were held by non-resident Indians. From rest around `10,000 Crores is estimated to be collected after the completion of assessment proceedings.

Compliance window

The compliance window is a part of the new anti-money law passed by Parliament in May and notified on May 26 after the assent given by the President.

What is tax compliance?

The extent to which a taxpayer conforms or fails to conform to the tax rules of his country. It can be done through filing a return, paying the due tax in a timely manner or by declaring income. ‘Compliance window’ to make voluntarily disclosures ended on September 30th this year and there are three categories of people who have been barred from availing this compliance window:

Foreign account holders like those mentioned in HSBC list, against which information has been collected by the government.

Those availing benefits under Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAAs) and Tax Information Exchange Agreements (TIEA) with foreign countries and jurisdictions.

And those against whom IT-department has initiated proceedings before June 30th or has carried out searches.

Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) is a Tax Treaty. It is basically a bilateral agreement between two nations aiming to eliminate or pass up double taxation of the same income in the two countries.

This 90 day compliance window had disclosures that mentioned about 30% tax and an equivalent of penalty, escaping the criminal prosecution and jail term. The government has received unreported overseas assets of Rs. 4,147 Crores from total 638 disclosures at the end of compliance window on September 30, against the earlier reported disclosure of Rs. 3,770 Crores on October 1.

All the deposits made since opening of bank account will be assessed for totalling the value of a person’s asset, which would also include immovable property, shares and jewellery. The shares and jewellery would be valued at fair market price for tax levying and penalty during the compliance window tenure.

What’s the purpose of this compliance?

It’s a notification provided under The Black Money (Undisclosed Foreign Income and Assets) and Imposition of Tax Act, 2015; which gives the person with black money a chance to come clean by declaring the undisclosed foreign assets and income.

Under this law, those having hidden foreign wealth would be punished with up to ten years of rigorous imprisonment and would have to pay tax and penalty of 120% of the value of the wealth including its confiscation as well.

The Black Money and Imposition of Tax Act, 2015, which has come into effect from July 1, lends 90-days compliance window. This gives the person having undisclosed foreign assets and income, a chance to come clean by declaring all such assets and paying a total of 60% tax and penalty


In order to allay the fears of taxpayers, the Central Board of Direct Taxes has come out with these sets of guidelines:

In case of disclosure of foreign bank accounts

(a)     For foreign bank account holders, any amount withdrawn from such bank accounts and re-deposited would not be counted. The value for purposes of declaration will only account to the sum of all the deposits made in respective bank accounts.

(b)     Deposits or non-chargeable income tax credits will not be considered for valuation.

(c)     The person can withdraw from his gross deposit to acquire new assets or create deposits in another bank account which is being disclosed.

(d)     If for a certain period, statements of such foreign bank accounts are not available; then the taxpayer has to declare that period on his best estimate basis and obtain a certificate from the bank to show that the details are actually not obtainable. If however later, the estimate made is found to be done despite the availability of bank statements, then the declaration would be treated as void.

(e)     Immunities will not be granted and if the value declared on best-estimate basis is found to be more than the final determination, the excess will not be refundable.

Key take-aways:

Those who would fail to declare their overseas assets would be liable to pay tax and penalty of 120 per cent and would also be facing jail term of around ten years. Those who have already been notified or received notices up to June 30, would not be considered to take advantage of the compliance window.

Indians, against whom information has been received from foreign nations or overseas accounts, will not be eligible for filing declaration under this window.

The tax and penalties can be paid till December 31. The commissioner of income tax (International Tax)-2, New Delhi, has been designated the task of receiving all such declarations.

FEMA, Foreign Exchange Management Act is an act of the Parliament of India, passed in 1999. It aims at facilitating external trade and payments. It also amends the law concerning foreign exchange and helps in promoting foreign exchange market in India.

The declarations of foreign assets for which taxes and penalties need to be paid under the Black Money Act, won’t be facing any proceedings under the FEMA (Foreign Exchange Management Act), 1999. Those waiting to dispose of assets declared and would want to bring back the proceeds through banking channel, would be thereby exempted from prosecution under FEMA.


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IBPS Cwe Clerk V: List of Participating Banks

IBPS released applications for clerical cadre via the Common Recruitment Process (CWE Clerks-V). The aspirants have to go through a series of selection process which consists: Preliminary exam, Mains exam and interview round. The preliminary paper consists of 3 sections namely Reasoning, English Language and Quantitative Aptitude. The Mains paper includes five sections which are Reasoning, Numerical Ability Test, English Language, Computer Knowledge and General Awareness Test.

List of participating banks are Andhra Bank, Bank of India, Bank of Maharashtra, Central Bank of India, Allahabad Bank, Indian Bank, Dena Bank, Indian Overseas Bank, Oriental Bank of Commerce, Punjab National Bank, Corporation Bank, Punjab & Sind Bank, Syndicate Bank, UCO Bank, Canara Bank, Union Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, United Bank of India, Vijaya Bank or Any other bank or financial institution.

The shortlisted candidates who have to go through the interview round need to carry relevant original documents and Xerox copies which are self attested to support the candidate’s eligibility and identity. The candidates who fail to submit the required documents during the interview will be disqualified from the recruitment process.

World’s Best Small Universities 2016: Two Indian Universities Included

Two Indian universities were placed in the list of top 20 ‘World’s Best Small Universities Ranking 2016’ published by the Times Higher Education. The debut list was released in London where IIT Guwahati was placed at the 14th position whereas Savitribai Phule Pune University was placed at the 18th position in the list which covers small universities from around the world. All the 20 universities are deemed as world class as they have already featured in the list of top 800 World University Rankings around the world.

Universities having less than 5000 students and offering research and teaching in excessive of four disciplines are termed as small universities. California Institute of Technology topped the ranking followed by Ecole Normale Superieure and Ecole Polytechnique from France. These universities were assessed on 13 various performance parameters which include teaching, innovation, citations, international outlook and research. Out of the 20 small universities only 4 covered all the six subject areas namely Physical Sciences, Medicine and Clinical, Arts and Humanities, Engineering and Technology, Social Sciences and Life Sciences. These 4 small universities include Savitribai Phule Pune University, Koc University, University of Tulsa and Tokyo Medical & Dental University. The United States of America with 5 universities had the highest number of small universities featured in the list.

CBSE Launches An Online Portal For Students And Teachers

CBSE has launched an online portal to deal with the exam management system for 10th and 12th standard keeping in mind the smooth and efficient working between teachers and students. The new online web portal named e-CBSE will assist the respective schools in generating roll nos. of students for their main exams. It will be helpful in making alterations in the students’ particulars and uploading of photos of students by using their current IDs and passwords. The portal also allows the schools to upload the internal subject evaluation grades for Class XII students online which include 3 internal subjects each. The officials at CBSE highlighted that any change of subject won’t be entertained at this stage. All the exam related materials including admit cards/hall tickets will be received by the schools through the e-CBSE portal which amounts to about 25 lakh Class X and Class XII students in the 2016. The portal is subject to many praises as it is going to going to be a time saver and environment friendly as it will cut the usage of paper. Approximately 17,000 schools which are affiliated to CBSE are already part of the new system and the rest of the schools are in the course of becoming the part of it. 17,165 schools are affiliated with CBSE, in India and abroad.

Entrance Exam Notification for NDA & CAT – 2016

NDA 2016 entrance examination notification for the NDA exam has been released and forms can be filled from 2nd January 2016 to 29th January 2016. The NDA (II) exam notification will be released on 18th June, 2016. The NDA I exam is scheduled to be held on 17th April, 2016 and the NDA II exam will be held on 18th September 2016. Candidates can apply online via www.upsconline.nic.in. Candidates who fulfil the eligibility criteria will be issued an e-Admit Card three weeks prior to the examination. Eligible candidates can download their respective e-Admit cards from the official UPSC website. The two sections of the exam comprises of General ability test (600 marks) and Mathematics (300 marks). The NDA/ NA 10 years Topicwise Solved Papers (2006-2015) by Disha publication is a must buy as it provides the perfect insight to the types of question asked during exams.

CAT 2016’s official notification will be released in July 2016. The sale and registration of the application form will commence from August 2016 and will last till September 2016. Admit cards will be issued through the official website and eligible candidates can download their admit card starting from October 2016. The results will be announced in December 2016. The application fee for the general and NC/OBC category candidates is Rs.1600 whereas Rs 800 for the SC/ST/Person with disability. The book “Quantitative Aptitude for CAT” by Disha publication is recommended for candidates seeking success in the entrance exam.

One Lakh Fewer Jee (Main) Aspirants In 2016

The amount of engineering aspirants registering for JEE (Main) has gone down for the second year in a row. The number of the aspirants has fallen by almost 1 lakh in 2016 following the last year drop of 50,000. The numbers of applicants in 2016 are around 12.07 lakh while in 2015, 13.56 lakh applicants had registered for the exam.

The JEE (Main) is the first phase of test for admission to undergraduate engineering courses (B.Tech.) held at national-level and conducted by CBSE every year. The exam is conducted for admission to technical institutions viz. NITs, IITs and institutions in participating states. The top 1.5 lakh students are selected for the JEE (Advanced) for admissions to IITs. In 2016 the IIT council had decided to shortlist a minimum of 2 lakh candidates. The experts have attributed the dramatic fall to the fading interest in engineering among the youth owing to lack of jobs after the degree and also to the variety of choices offered to students in other professions in the last few years.

The help books published by various publishers will provide the aspirants with the necessary guidance to crack the much coveted JEE (Main) exams by providing the necessary concepts included in the syllabus. The book TARGET JEE Main 2016 by Disha publication is an ultimate book designed with the concept of Triple A’s (ANALYSE, APPLY and ACHIEVE) provides all important concepts necessary to crack the JEE Main exam.

All Cbse Books To Be Available Online Free – Smriti Irani


HRD Minister Smriti Irani has announced that all CBSE books and learning materials will be available online for free. NCERT books are already available online for free through e-books and mobile applications a month-and-a-half ago. Irani promised that the Centre will soon launch programmes to aid parents in analysing the performance of their child in Kendriya Vidyalayas. The HRD Minister urged members of her ministry to organize Child Conventions, so that children can interact with professionals from various fields including defence which will not only help them professionally but also groom them into good human beings.

The Centre will also be launching ‘Shaala Darpan’ and ‘Saransh’ services in Kendriya Vidyalayas in the coming academic year. ‘Shaala Darpan’ service is aimed at using SMS to keep parents informed about their child’s attendance, grades and time table. On the other hand ‘Saransh’ service will help parents compare the subject-wise learning results of their children, with others at the district, state and national levels.

The PSA (Problem Solving Assessment) books will assist the students to boost their creative thinking, decision making, problem solving and communication skills to help them score well during the examinations. These books also contain solved and unsolved sample papers which will help the students to evaluate their preparedness for the upcoming exams.

Only 4 Days Left For Aptitude Test In Gate (Engineering) Exams 2016

Only 4 days are left in hand for the GATE examination, which will be conducted from 30th January to 7th February, 2016. The dates on which the exams will be held are 30th January (Saturday), 31st January (Sunday), 6th February (Saturday), 7th February (Sunday). The timings of the exams will be between 9.00am and 12.00 noon; 2.00pm and 5.00pm. The result of the exam will be declared on 19th March (17:00 hrs). The scores obtained will be valid for three years, from the date of declaration of the results.

The Candidates can check and download their admit cards/hall tickets from the official website – gate.iisc.ernet.in. The entrance exam primarily aims to test the candidate’s understanding in their respective undergraduate subjects which can include Engineering/Technology/Architecture and post-graduate level subjects in Science. With only few days in hand the students should realise the importance of mock tests as they contain variety of important questions. They play a crucial role in earning good marks and satisfactory rank in the GATE exams. Therefore, the students should consult mock test paper books from reputed publishers to avoid facing wrong answers and information. The mock test papers will provide an insight to the students about their areas of strength and weakness.


The access and usage of a varied range of affordable and quality financial services in a simple yet controlled manner by the low income sections of society is what is called financial inclusion. India holds the second position on the list of world’s fastest growing economies; and has a major section of the population that falls in rural category. Even long after India’s independence, a large population of the country did not own a bank account. The PM of India, on August 15, announced the Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana, a national mission of financial inclusion in the country. The mission is said to play a key role in the economic development of the country. A bank account for every Indian is the key feature of the mission. “I wish to connect the poorest citizens of the country with the facility of bank accounts,” said Prime Minister, Modi. “There are millions of families who have mobile phones, but no bank accounts. We have to change this. The change will commence from this point,” he said.


P.M Modi


Earlier PMs had similar announcements—Indira Gandhi started a campaign against poverty, Manmohan Singh started a campaign against unemployment—but none of the campaigns survived for long. PM Modi’s program was very promising and enticed a large number of the country’s population.

The mission was officially launched on 28 August across India. “It is the end of financial untouchability,” Modi said. “It is the beginning of freedom from poverty.” It made all the country banks were work overtime to get all the necessary things in place. More than 15 million accounts were taken on this day. A huge number of camps were set up to help people fill in the details to get their accounts. It is not just owning an account feature of the scheme that coaxed a huge population to open a personal bank account but other features like each account holder would get a RuPay debit card launched by the RBI (Reserve Bank of India), an accident insurance of INR 100,000 and a life insurance of INR 30,000 for those opening their accounts before 26, January. “Never before in economic history have 15 million bank accounts been opened in a single day,” said Modi. “Never before have insurance companies issued 15 million accident policies in a single day. Never before has the government of India organized a program of such scale — over 77,000 locations — with the participation of so many chief ministers, union ministers, and government and bank officials.”

There have been three most important needs to launch the program as the policy makers shared.

  • Creating a way to instill the habit of saving money – The lower section of our society has been facing problems due to lack of savings that may be of use during the hard times. Having personal accounts will promote the rural people to save money in banks rather than using the traditional modes of money saving like putting their savings in lands or borrowing from moneylenders.
  • Providing credit channels – The unbanked population has always depended on friends, families and neighbours for credits to put into their work. The scheme offers a formal credit channel that allows each account holder to get money easily. This would further lead itself to the increase in outputs and growth in the economy.
  • Bridging gaps in public subsidy and welfare programs – There is a sum of money in the country that is meant for the poorest section of the society. It fails to reach the true receivers as there is somewhere a leakage in the line. Having a personal bank account will ensure that the money is transferred directly to each beneficiary that too on time and without any chances of leakage.


Disha detailed image


A Flawless GST?

If the GST bill is through, it will definitely be very crucial for the market because it will bring the government’s fiscal deficit down. GST is a transparent Tax and will reduce the number of indirect taxes. According to experts, with the implementing the GST, India will gain $15 billion a year. This is because it will promote more exports, create more employment opportunities and boost growth.

Union Budget 2015-16

Union Budget 2014-15 has brought a ray of hope for the startup community. The Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley kept aside Rs 10,000 crore funds to increase capital flow to start-ups and SMES in the country. This had created a wave of expectation among the startup community. In order to boost the startup ecosystem, there are certain wish lists of the industry pundits, which they expect to be fulfilled by the government in the upcoming Union Budget 2015-16.

Education for   polls

The Supreme Court upheld the constitutional validity of a law enacted by Haryana government to bar the illiterate from contesting panchayat polls in the state, and ruled that “it is only education which gives a human being the power to discriminate between right and wrong, good and bad”. The top court also said it would be perfectly valid for the legislature to disqualify a candidate from seeking election to a civic body if he or she lacks “basic norms of hygiene” by not having a functional toilet at home.

Kiran Bir Sethi

Kiran Bir Sethi, the founder of the world renowned Riverside school in Ahemdabad, was elected to the Ashoka Fellowship in 2008. A TED India Fellow, Kiran teaches her kids the valuable lesson of “I Can”. She is also the pioneer of aProCh – which stands for “A Protagonist in every Child” and champion of youth volunteerism for empowering children to change the world. Sethi has recently been chosen as one of 12 Thought Leaders of the World – an Innovation Knight for the i4P (Innovation for Peace) Society, New York.

Chanda Kochhar

ICICI bank CEO Chanda Kochhar is among three Indians selected for this year’s Asia Game Changer awards given by Asia Society to honour “true leaders making a positive contribution to the future of Asia.” The New York-based organisation said Kochhar “not only made history” by becoming the first woman to head an Indian bank but she also transformed the entire Indian retail banking industry.

Mariam al-Mansouri (UAE)

UAE Air Force Fighter pilot   is a role model for women throughout the Arab world for battling stereotypes, and terror, from the air. The first female fighter pilot in the United Arab Emirates, she led a strike mission this week against the terror group ISIS. She is a qualified, highly trained, combat ready pilot leading the mission.

Nitish Kumar

Nitish Kumar surprisingly joined hands with arch rival RJD president Lalu Prasad Yadav to script a third consecutive term for himself as Chief Minister after being bruised in the 2014 Lok Sabha polls. The Grand Secular Alliance got 178 seats in a House of 243 while the NDA could get only 58 seats.

David Headley

David Headley, the Pakistani-American who scouted targets for the 26/11 terror attacks in 2008 by the Lashkar-e-Toiba, was granted pardon by a Mumbai special court. He turns approver and a witness in the case against plotter Zabiuddin Ansari alias Abu Jundal. Headley was pardoned on the condition that he make full disclosure of the criminal conspiracy behind the attacks as well as his role and those of others in it. His statement will be recorded by a TADA court on February 8, 2016.

Arvind Kejriwal

Upsetting Mr Modi’s applecart, the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) scored a landslide victory in the Delhi Assembly elections 2015 by winning as many as 67 of the 70 seats leaving BJP with only 3 and completely decimating Congress which drew a blank. The 47-year-old Mr Kejriwal had resigned after 49 tumultuous days as Delhi chief minister. BJP accepted the defeat as a ‘setback’ but refused to accept that it was against the Modi government’s performance.

Odd-even formula

As many as 10 lakh private cars will daily stay off the roads in the national capital once the odd- even formula is enforced from January 1. As a result, the drastic reduction in traffic flow expected to significantly reduce the high-level of pollution in the city. There are more than 19 lakh private four-wheelers ply in Delhi and nearly half of these will remain off the roads from January 1 on a trial basis of a fortnight. The Arvind Kejriwal government is yet to take a call on a policy for the large number of private four-wheelers entering the national capital from NCR regions like Noida, Gurgaon, Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Sonipat.

PM Modi’s unscheduled visit to Pakistan

PM Narendra Modi made an unscheduled stopover in Lahore while returning to Delhi from Afghanistan. Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif received Modi at the Lahore airport where the two leaders exchanged pleasantries as Modi wished Sharif on his birthday. The sudden stopover proves to be much needed departure from protocol-driven politics between the two countries. Like leaders of other nations in the world like the EU, ASEAN and even countries in our neighbourhood leaders of India and Pakistan too needed to inject informality in their relations.



What is Terrorism?

Any act,with political/religious or any other objective which causes terror amongst the mass is termed as terrorism. Exploiting human fear to meet political objectives is not a new thing. It has been in practice by many political organizations, religious groups, revolutionaries, ruling governments, nationalist groups and by both right and left-wing political parties. To reach some political, religious or ideological goals, these terror groups use violence or threat to coerce the population or the government. Terrorism bifurcates into two kinds: Political and Criminal. Political creates panic to the mass at larger extent and criminal targets kidnapping for taking heavy ransom or raising unlawful demands.

The impact of terrorism has been world-wide but we see it scattered in groups and often hear of disturbances or blasts in selected states or places. These activities tend to disturb the normal routine of the people and spread its vehement face to create fear and panic in the mindset of the mass.

Terrorism in India

Depending on what their objectives are, terrorism in India is subdivided in four major groups:

Ethno-nationalist terrorism

This type focuses on underlining the response of one ethnic group against another and also looks forward to creating a separate state within India or independent of India or in a neighbouring nation.

Eg. The insurgent tribal groups in North East India

Religious terrorism

Charged with religious imperatives, these groups fightfor specific religious groups with their presumed duties and solidarity. Eg. The attack on Taj and MumbaiAttacks on 26/11, by the Islamic terror group of Pakistan is a kind of religious terrorism.

Left-wing terrorism

This group opposes the prevalent socio-political structure which according to it creates a disruptive impact on the economy. Their aim henceforth lies in bringing revolutionary changes by means of violence.  Eg. Maoist violence in Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh

Narco- terrorism

This group indulges in drug trafficking by creating illegal narcotics traffic zones. Eg. drug violence in northwest India is an example of such type.


Final Graffic

Terrorism is an attack on humanity and civilization as a whole. It is an evil and poses a great challenge to the world. The horrific killings of innocent hostages in Syria are the recent turbulence created by the terror group named ISIS. Thousands of people are forced to leave their homes and run away to safe places in Germany and European states.

The Indian states of Jammu & Kashmir, east-central and south-central India (Naxalism) and the Seven Sister States have been in persistent threat of long-term terrorist activities. As per the State Department of the United States, there were 11, 098 terror-caused deaths worldwide while 231 civilians died in the terror attacks in 2012 in India. As many as 800terrorist cells have been operating in India, as per the data collected in August 2008 by the National Security Council.

India is the 4th most terror affected country in the world, with an average of 500persons dying especially due to terrorism every year. It not just affects our economy and degrades our position in the world but also creates insecurity among people.

There is not just financial loss but inflow of foreign funds also gets reduced, once we face such threats. This affects our tourism industry to a great extent and thereby the country’s economy faces a setback.

With no respect for any religion, no ideology and no nation, terrorism is a malady which has been prevailing in India since long, making it one of its oldest victims. The rise of Islamic state (IS) militants in West Asia is a threatening call to India’s security and might also cause unrest in the subcontinent. Other groups like al-Qaida and Indian Mujahideen are some of the top terror groups which have always focused on creating huge turmoil in Indian states. With no specific boundary, these groups present ugly face of menace. They are very specific of what they want and pose greatest threats to mankind. They know no friends and recognize no rules. Through acts of stray shooting or explosions and their most preferred flight hijacking; they have aimed at spreading dread amongst the masses.

Of all the kinds, political terrorists stand to be the most violent as they are well-trained and pose a great challenge to the law enforcing agencies. Their acts are well-planned under days and months of preparation. Terrorists recruit young people and brainwash them in a manner that they start to believe in the power of bombs and guns. They are taught that dying as a terrorist is a sacred and holy act, which further makes them more determined and willing to do anything and everything under the sun, in order to meet their purposes.

The best example that can be cited here is the training of hundreds of terrorist in Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK). Pakistan also supplies weapons and training to terrorists in Punjab. Assam in the northeast is the sole region affected by terrorism and regional terrorism has proved to be more fatal and violent of all kinds.

The serial explosion of thirteen bombs during the 1993 Bombay Bombings is quoted as one of the deadliest terrorist attacks in India. Considered as the most destructive bomb explosions in India’s history, these explosions were believed to be synchronized by Dawood Ibrahim, a terrorist group leader opposing India.

Terrorism with its different forms in different countries is a war that is neither fought openly nor in a fair manner. Pirates in Somalia have been hijacking lots of ships every now and then to get hefty ransom which has been interrogated by UNO and it has asked the member nations’ participation in combating the terror through active involvement of their respective forces. The brutal attack on Twin Tower in USA in September 2011, followed by an attack by USA in Afghanistan to demolish Mulla Omar’s regime are some of the eye openers for us.

The fight over the common border shared by Afghanistan and Pakistan and the seeking of right by Talibans has seen a series of disruptions in specific zones of the concerned nations.

Steps by government

The recent visit of our Prime Minister to US saw him presenting his concerns over the withdrawal of US troops from Afghanistan. He said that US troops should be withdrawn slowly to stop the rise of Taliban. Also, for the newly formed government in Afghanistan to function democratically; he said that Afghanistan should be allowed to stand on its feet. It was when he rejected any distinction between good and bad terrorism in context to a previous statement by Pakistan over the issue of Afghan Taliban (bad Taliban) vs. Pakistan Taliban (good Taliban).

Many steps have been taken by our government like revamping of the old security steps into new and more complicated security systems at airports. More strict laws like POTA (Prevention of Terrorist activity Act) have been made. POTA is an anti-terrorism legislation which was enacted in 2002 by the Parliament. POTA has replaced the Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance (POTO) of 2001. There has been a reduction of criminal terrorism by 10% after implementation of these measures, though not much difference in political terrorism has been noticed.

Final Map

Globally what needs to be done?

Being a global threat, terrorism requires a control from the grass roots level to the international level. The world needs to unite as a single power to face this threat that is growing by leaps and bounds. We need to come up with ideas on how to mobilize the world and take concrete actions to mitigate and end this nuisance. Before safeguarding humanity, we need to come to an agreement on what constitutes terrorism and thereby make it defunct step by step.

As our Prime Minister very well quoted at the SAP centre in September this year that United Nations need to define terrorism such that the confusion and delusion amongst people regarding good or bad terrorismgets evaded. Terrorism is terror and can’t be justified by labelling it as good terrorism even if it originates for a cause like asking for one’s religious or social rights. It can’t be distinguished in two parts because it is a massive destruction caused to the people and doesn’t spare anyone or shows any mercy. Today terrorism has become a major global issue which needs to be resolved through the joint effort of each nation. It is time we talk straight and come to terms with the truth rather than citing such illogical quotes. Humanity needs to understand that terrorism involves violent acts which aim to spread threat and anything that feeds upon human blood just to satisfy one’s ego can’t be considerable for categorizations as good or bad. It’s simply venomous and malevolent.




Is it Time to Lower the Drinking Age to 18?

Lowering the drinking age has been much in debate and hot discussion among political parties including even thosewho have been determined to lower it from 25 to 18. The youth of a nation who get the right to vote and serve in the military at 18, which makes them quite responsible and mature enough to analyze wrong and right and that accounts to the fact that they have every right to take the decision of consuming alcohol rather than being debarred from the same.

Earlier Sheila Dikshit government faced a tug-of-war situation when the decision of lowering the drinking age from 21 to 18 was put to halt due to the BJP in opposition raising debate.

While the debate goes round the table, it’s time to take a quick glance over its pros and cons.


Many argue that with age comes tolerance which is not true to the extent of our understanding and experiences where we find an 80 year old being irresponsible while an 18 year guy being more serious and responsible. It further elaborates that tolerance has nothing to do with age but more to do with responsibility. Refuting the lowering of drinking age on this basis sounds illogical, thereby.

It has been noticed that countries with higher legal drinking age face more alcohol related deaths and damages than nations where the drinking age is lower. For example, countries such as China, Italy and Greece witness lesser alcohol related problems and the legal drinking age is also lower there.

The argument that drinking at 18 is dangerous can be fought by improvising the drinking habits through peers and parents during public events as it is a public activity. Hence, drinking can be easily monitored and checked if 18 years old over indulge in consumption.

What’s barred seems irresistible, isn’t it? And so is the case with drinking as well. Illegal drinking is the first to take firm ground once drinking is barred for certain age group because we as human beings tend to be attracted more towards the things which we are asked to stay away from. So, the problem gets complicated if alcohol consumption is barred for 18 years old, who tend to binge on uncontrolled drinking.

Many states in US have allowed drinking age to stay at 18 which comes along with parental permission and on public premises while in India, we still believe to stay behind the times by limiting the drinking to 25 years old. The question is if a juvenile aged 16-18 can be tried as an adult for heinous crimes, isn’t he or she equally responsible enough to decide to drink or abstain from it or is judged to be equally responsible for making it a call all by himself/herself?

As far as adult rights are concerned, almost all legal rights for adults seem gained except this one right to drink and that is the root cause leading to risky drinking habits. If 18 year olds are treated equally as adults and not kids and are thought of being responsible; then unsafe drinking can be controlled to a greater extent. We find fewer incidences of drunken driving accidents in those countries where legal drinking age is 18 and that is a simple reason to accept this age group as a mature one.

The age between 18 to 21 years is more about experimenting and getting thrills out of adventures and breaking the law. Only if the taboo is eliminated, the thrill element can be decreased further leading to less consumption of alcohol by 18 year olds.

Prohibition of drinking by 18 years old in public places can induce in them the tendency to be forced to drink in non-administered settings like parties. If the age limit is lowered, at least they will be freer to drink in a regulated environment.


Moving to the other side of this, looking at the cons, we can say that lowering of the drinking age can lead to more incidences of crimes related to alcohol that may be fatal in nature. According to studies, US states like Michigan and Maine have experienced increased alcohol related crimes once the drinking age has been reduced to 18 over there.

Due to undergoing physical changes, introduction to alcoholism at such an age can act as a catalyst or a trigger that may create a range of associated problems like drug abuse, unprotected intercourse, depression and anger and social evils.

Children at such an age do not have fair understanding of the actual amount to consume and so may be prone to uncontrolled drinking leading to alcohol abuse. If they are allowed to drink at such an age, they will surely be engaged to binge upon it.

Overindulgence may further ruin their academic performance due to detrimental impact on their studies. The earlier a person begins drinking, the more are the chances of leaving the habit late, which intends towards the person becoming an alcoholic later in life.

If they are exposed to alcohol at such a tender age, the regular consumption might put them to a risk of stunted brain growth with less efficiency and also poor organizational skill, planning and emotional development.

Allowing 18 years old to drink means paving a way for 16 and 17 years to drink as well, as they almost tend to be in a common social circle! This may lead to underage drinking further creating adverse effects.

Drinking affects the frontal lobes of the brain and since at the age of 18, the body is still in a growing stage; it can hamper the mental development of the person in later stage of life.

The real thing to ponder over is to consider the role played by age in drinking matter. It’s also considerable that a person is mature enough to handle his or her drinks if he or she is old enough to vote or wise enough to serve in the army. Furthermore, if so then he or she should be competent enough to decide if drinking is right or wrong. Banning anything for that matter has never served any solution as it only tends to aggravate the problem through illegal, unlawful and hidden means of committing the crime or doing away with barred activity. So, the ideal way out must be to allow drinking in supervised and regulated conditions, if the government considers allowing 18 year olds to consume alcohol.

The reason is not supporting the lowering of drinking age but to consider the situation where law is resulting in more harassment than regulation. 25 is an unreasonable age at which the consumption of alcohol be allowed because if 18 years is considerable for driving and deciding who will rule the country, then it is an age mature enoughto handle alcohol as well.


Disha detailed image


Sunanda Pushkar

Sunanda Pushkar was the wife of congress politician Shashi Tharoor. She was a sales manager in the Dubai-based TECOM Investments, and a co-owner of the India-based Rendezvous Sports World. On 17 January 2014, Sunanda was found dead in a Chanakyapuri hotel room. Initially, Sunanda was suspected to have committed suicide. Later reports stated that the cause of death was unnatural. The autopsy suggested that she died of drug overdose. Doctors at the AIIMS said it would take some more time to conclude the case. However, the case is active and subjudice.

Aarushi Talwar

The infamous 2008 ‘Noida double murder case’ of fourteen-year-old Aarushi Talwar and the domestic help Hemraj on the night of 15-16 May has turned out to be an unresolved mystery of all times. Within weeks of Aarushi’s death, her dentist parents became the prime suspects. But did they really do it? Though no concrete evidence was found against the parents, who still claim their innocence, court pronounced them guilty on circumstantial evidences. The incessant media coverage aroused huge public interest in the case while it went on to become the most talked about murder mystery in recent past.

Salman Khan’s acquittal

The film industry stood united for Salman Khan over his acquittal from the infamous hit-and-run case. The case dragged on for full thirteen years and during this period, heroes have become villains and vice versa with every different version of the story. We cannot cast aspersions on the judgement of either of the courts, but certain facts cannot be ignored. Who exactly was driving the car, if not Salman? A man lost his life, others were injured and the key witness in the case, died in misery. Isn’t it very disturbing that the High Court verdict has exposed shoddy criminal investigation in a high-profile case that involved a star who has been known to be wayward.


Netaji files: ‘Face mapping’

The declassification of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose files will reveal the mystery behind the “face mapping” that shows that Netaji might have been present at the Indo-Pak peace talks in Tashkent in 1966, with late Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri. The view validates a recent claim by Shastri’s grandson that Shastri had met someone who was believed to be an icon in India. The declassification of files, which are beginning from January 23 will also throw light on the photograph of a man who is seen in pictures during Lal Bahadur Shastri’s visit to Tashkent. The Modi government has begun the process of declassification of Netaji files and would be made public on January 23, 2016, Netaji’s birth anniversary.

Where is Dawood Ibrahim?

The Mumbai underworld don and the mastermind behind the serial bomb blasts in Mumbai in 1993 that killed at least 257 people fled India in 1986. Since then he has been living in Dubai and Pakistan as a fugitive. However, the question remains as to where India’s most wanted fugitive is right now. Since his location is not known, the government cannot begin the extradition process against him. Defence analysts say he is still in Pakistan, well protected by the ISI.

The Bermuda Triangle mystery turns 70

Over seven decades the Bermuda region has become synonymous with the unexplained disappearances of ships and airplanes – often with no trace of them or their crews ever being found. The region is an expanse of ocean in the North Atlantic that spans the area between Florida, Bermuda and Puerto Rico. The first big mystery of the Bermuda Triangle was that of Flight 19 consisting of five airplanes that disappeared on December 5, 1945 with no sign of any wreckage ever found. Anyways, it seems unlikely that the Bermuda Triangle enigma will be disappearing anytime soon.

MH370 Mystery Solved?

A year after the disappearance of a Malaysia Airlines plane that disappeared in March 2014 with 237 people onboard, investigators still have different views about what happened. Could pilot suicide have been the cause? Now the French authorities officially confirmed that the piece of plane debris that washed up on the island of Réunion in late July belonged to MH370. The debris was sent to a lab in France and investigators used an endoscope to look inside the part, and found serial numbers matching the missing plane.

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IIT Admissions:Besides JEE,students need to clear NAT too

education news

To make India empowered and competitive, IITs have proved best to accelerate India’s development in the field of technology. IITs are the best institutes for engineering and they facilitate quality education. IITs function autonomously and they are not directly under the control of government. To make into these institutions is a challenging task and a dream of every student who wants to be an engineer.

Every year about 40,000 students take the entrance test.So, given the level of hype around the IITs, a whole industry has cropped up IIT JEE coaching classes. These coaching classes lure a big section of aspirant students in a hope to get selected. On the basis of the recommendations given by a committee comprising of eminent persons who belong to IIT council (autonomous body) to the ministry of HRD, there is a need to change the structure of entrance test for such prestigious institutions.It has been suggested that there should be an establishment of NAT(National Authority for Testing) in order to test the ability of such aspirants.The purpose is to keep away the aspirants from such coaching centres which are making money out of this business.

The HRD has decided to formulate NAT on the basis of which around four lakh students would be shortlisted for JEE.The HRD is soon going to seek the nod of the Union Cabinet for the establishment of NAT.As per recommendations,a test would be conducted in the later half of the year to assess the aspirants before they appear for JEE.The committee has also recommended that the JEE itself be designed to test the knowledge of aspirants in Physics,Chemistry and Mathematics and it should be converted into a single entrance test.

So,the candidates who wish to appear for JEE will be first of all shortlisted on the basis of the scores obtained in NAT in the current year as per the recommendations given by IIT council to the Ministry of HRD which is soon getting nod from the Union Cabinet.A revolutionary change to bring the reforms in order to produce world class engineers who have the ability to become the prominent figures in the field of technology.

Do we still need Caste- Based Reservation in India?

The quota system as we know today has a long history which has been under inevitable debate before and after Independence. Reservations for backward castes were into the system long before independence in the large area south of the Vindhyas, which comprised the Presidency and the Princely states.

A number of castes and communities that had some share in the British administration were given reservations in 1908. Some major changes favoring the SCs, STs and OBCs were introduced even post independence, amongst which the Mandal Commission of 1979, holds the major significance. Its vision was to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward classes.

Background- how and why it evolved

Untouchability was the common form of caste discrimination in India and scheduled castes were the prime targets of the same. Owing to the deep rooted caste system of our country, where skin colour was accounted for dividing people into upper caste or lower caste; our society stood totally segregated with upper caste Brahmins enjoying all the privileges and dark skinned, lower caste Shudras being deprived of even the basic rights. Thence began a process of equalization in 1950 that created quota for backward classes and addition of new quotas and reservation are still in process from time to time.

With the aim of increasing opportunities for enhanced social and educational status of underprivileged communities, the Indian reservation system also believes in the objective of uplifting their lifestyle and giving them a space in the mainstream Indian society.

Union Government’s caste based reservation system


Do we still need it?

This question still keeps on revolving around us and whether we like it or not, one thing is sure that it simply portrays a system of evident discrimination. Though the objective with which it was initiated was grounded to very good motives of equalizing their status in the society, but with time its meaning has more or less changed and its impact is also demeanedin the eyes of the people. With more and more cases of people applying with false documents of caste in colleges for a seat or for jobs, the opportunities are being missed by other deserving candidates who do not belong to any reserved quota.

Though the purpose for which it began is still not served, it has rather diverted the functioning in opposite direction where this whole quota system is used to uplift one section of the society at the cost of another. For a candidate to prove his worth, it hardly matters if he belongs to a lower caste or minority group. To compete for a just life, all that matters is the quality of education and ability acquired by an individual.

The nuances of the reservation system have created an unskilled workforce that is barely capable to compete at the global level. More and more contemptible candidates are adding to the burden of growing population on the other hand.

Population graph chart

Before we talk about caste based reservation policy of the government with anguish, we need to know that it is not a charity bestowed on the wretched, neither an anti-poverty programme. It rather is something that symbolizes representation, human rights and parity and acts as a defense mechanism against caste based discrimination and exclusion. It provides a means to have equal say in the governance and any hostility shown to such reservation or hatred towards the lower castes justifies the act of attempting to modify the structure of power in polity, economy and society. Our society still displays multiple forms of graded inequality which is soaked deep into the system and as long as it keeps on manifesting discrimination, exclusion and violence against the people belonging to lower caste hierarchy, a need for such caste based reservation continues.

Are the reserved constituencies in state assemblies real benefactor for the Dalits and Adivasis? We know that the fate of winning candidates depends a lot on the non-Dalit and non-Adivasi electorate and the reason that explains the largest number of reserved constituency successes by BJP, Congress or others showcase non-Dalits and non-Adivasis caste and communities to be the core base of electoral support.

Reservation policies are the ways of empowering the disempowered but the arbitrary manner of implementing the programmes and policies by the government only shows its insincere approach at the state and central levels. Funds that have been allocated under Special Component Plan and Scheduled Caste Sub Plan aren’t used properly and are led to lapse, which again brings forth the complete impunity of the duty bearers.


Before we talk about caste based reservation policy of the government with anguish, we need to know that it is not a charity bestowed on the wretched, neither an anti-poverty programme. It rather is something that symbolizes representation, human rights and parity and acts as a defense mechanism against caste based discrimination and exclusion. It provides a means to have equal say in the governance and any hostility shown to such reservation or hatred towards the lower castes justifies the act of attempting to modify the structure of power in polity, economy and society. Our society still displays multiple forms of graded inequality which is soaked deep into the system and as long as it keeps on manifesting discrimination, exclusion and violence against the people belonging to lower caste hierarchy, a need for such caste based reservation continues.
Are the reserved constituencies in state assemblies real benefactor for the Dalits and Adivasis? We know that the fate of winning candidates depends a lot on the non-Dalit and non-Adivasi electorate and the reason that explains the largest number of reserved constituency successes by BJP, Congress or others showcase non-Dalits and non-Adivasis caste and communities to be the core base of electoral support.
Reservation policies are the ways of empowering the disempowered but the arbitrary manner of implementing the programmes and policies by the government only shows its insincere approach at the state and central levels. Funds that have been allocated under Special Component Plan and Scheduled Caste Sub Plan aren’t used properly and are led to lapse, which again brings forth the complete impunity of the duty bearers.

On one hand, this system is all about exploiting the resources in name of these reserved categories while on the other hand, this quota system divides the nation on caste lines. It lacks any foresight and also creates a widening gap between higher and lower classes. Political will of the political party too seems like fading when it comes to oppose such a system.
Just the mere idea of political democracy is going to do us no good, as real democracy needs to believe in social and economic democracy as well and the purpose of establishing an egalitarian society would hence be served that would be based on the principles of equality, liberty and fraternity. Picking up caste as a card for winning elections has been a tricky game by politicians time and again and the recent bias created by BJP leaders amongst the backward classes of Bihar in the Bihar elections sound more illogical than being Brahmanical or Hindutava if that is what all they focused on.
Strengthening the base of our educational system should be a priority and if the real aim is to build a just society, then quality and top notch education at primary and secondary levels in the Government as well as private schools is much needed. This will lead to a fairer system. Besides alienating the society, the reservation policy creates more chaos and disturbances in the system. If it’s forced, it’s forced just for the sake of political gains. It has been viewed that just the creamy layer have got all the benefits through this and therefore, the Government has requested the National Commission for Backward Classes to prepare lists of upper and lower OBC for each state. This will surely help reduce extreme inequalities in education and job opportunities of different castes and communities.
Gone are the days when caste based political games won in elections. Today, at this juncture when India represents a major growing democracy on the world platform, reservation and enhancing caste distinctions will serve us no good. The recent demand by Bahujan Samaj Party’s chief Mayawati to extend reservation to the backward caste in private sector and also include poor people from upper castes as beneficiaries of reservation policy; is another thought-twisting or rather say, growth-forbidding idea. Our ministers and politicians must understand that growth is fundamental for all and is a homogeneous concept. It can’t be achieved by splitting up benefits to few and seizing them from others which is again a political trickery being played to distract people from their goals. Rather than pointing out the Government to take steps to initiate specific caste targeted policies, political leaders and parties must work together to come up with goal-targeted and development-oriented concepts. Even the mass needs to wake up and realize that being a dependent child of caste beneficiaries will bring them more negative points than positives. They need to evolve through gaining skills and seeking education that would enrich them in the long run and would make them responsible and resourceful citizens of world’s largest democracy.




Indian Economy in 2015: The year 2015 brought with it towering expectations from the new government and GDP rose to 7.4% in the July-September quarter in fiscal year 2015-2016 which is better than 7% in the April-June quarter. With a number of initiatives and reforms like the ‘Make in India’, ‘digitization’ and the implementation of GST, it remains to be seen how they will reignite investments and take the economy to a robust GDP growth.

Rise in Terrorism : The 2015 Global Terrorism Index (GTI) released on 17 November has recorded the rise in terrorism, with a nine-fold increase in terrorism-related deaths since 2000. In total, 32,658 people were killed in terrorist attacks in 67 countries in 2014. The militant groups ‘Boko Haram’ and ‘Islamic State’ are largely to blame for the increase, as they accounted for more than 51 percent of the deaths in 2014. Now its ramifications are being felt more widely throughout the world.

The Growing Intolerance: Despite Prime Minister Modi’s assertion that there is no place for intolerance in India, there were incidents of ‘intolerance’ like murder of MM Kalburgi, Dadri lynching, Ghar Wapsi etc. that made headlines recently. Though it is an extremely worrying trend, the question remains how the state will deal with this.

Falling Crude oil Prices: Global oil prices have been falling sharply over the past seven months touching below $44 per barrel mark in early December leading to significant revenue shortfalls in many energy exporting nations, while consumers in many importing countries are paying less to drive their cars.

Essential Commodities Price Rise: The recent price rise in the essential commodities has hurt the common man badly. The prices of onion, tomatoes, pulses (with Arhar crossing Rs.200/kg mark) have gone up unprecedentedly in recent months. A concerted action is required for dealing the situation as it is hurting the common man in India.

Parliament Disruption: The parliament has lost 33.3 per cent of the available time this year with the present Lok Sabha alone losing 6.67 per cent of its total available time in the parliament. The parliamentarians often forget the world is watching this ugly stalemate and it does not bode well for the country’s image. Should the voters not reward or punish their elected representatives for good or bad parliamentary performance?

Devaluation of Indian Rupees : Throughout the year 2015, Indian rupee has been losing some of its sheen, against most currencies, including the US dollar. Indian rupee breached at 66.60 against US dollar in early December, its weakest since September 2013. The rupee has remained under pressure ever since China has devalued yuan.

Delhi’s Air Pollution : In November, New Delhi recorded a chart-breaking reading of 999 on the Air Quality Index while any reading above 150 is considered unhealthy, with the range 351-500 classified as ‘hazardous’.

FDI inflow in India : In the January-June period of 2015, India has surpassed US and China as the biggest Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) destination, achieving $31 billion investments compared with $28 billion attracted by China and $27 billion by the US. With strong economic fundamentals of the country and its huge untapped potential, now, the world is finding India as an important alternative, when others aren’t doing well.

Juvenile Crimes : Juvenile crimes in India are on the rise. According to the 2015 stats, over 1000 juveniles were nabbed for heinous crimes in the first half of 2015 in the capital alone. The situation in overall the country is no better either. Though the Lok Sabha has passed the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Bill, 2014, seeking to allow children aged between 16 and 18 be tried as adults for heinous crimes, it is yet to be cleared in the Rajya Sabha. However, law enforcement agencies doubt whether the change in age will really work.

RBI Cutting Repo Rates : The RBI cut interest rates for a third time this year taking advantage of subdued inflation to lend more support to an economy which is not doing as well as latest impressive growth numbers suggest. Consumer price inflation hit a four-month low of 4.87 percent in April.

The Rise of E-Commerce : The e-commerce industry is growing at a rapid pace and changing the dynamics of the retail industry. The online user base is expected to cross 300 million in the next 1 – 2 years. This large base will provide vast scope for e-commerce businesses. However, the need of the hour is consolidation of the Indian e-commerce businesses to prevent foreign players to take over.

Social Media is Here to Stay : Social media has become so integrated into our daily life that it’s slowly becoming a part of life. According to a recent survey every Indian is giving 5-6 hours over social media. Now in India consumers believe that social media like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, Instagram, Google+, Youtube etc can fetch them more potential than any other channel. Even recent elections in Delhi and Bihar are an evidence of what is importance of Social media in Indian Politics.

Real Estate Slumps : With PM Modi’s pro-development and infrastructure policies, planning from roads to highways and bridges to smart cities, the construction scenario seems to be spectacular. Real Estate and Infrastructure Development has witnessed unprecedented growth in India in the last few decades. However, with the economies facing slump in the past few years, the Real Estate Sector too has borne the brunt. Now it is to be seen when this trend can be expected to catch some momentum?

Global Recession : As GDP has been trending lower since 2010, it is heading for a fall. The main reasons are weak demand and low oil prices. Debt continues to scale new heights, growth is in the doldrums, and the major world economies are fast running out of options. Now with the massive slowdown in China and other emerging markets, the world is on the brink of slipping back into another global recession?

Export Growth in 2015 : Exports in India decreased 17.53 percent year-on-year to 21352.79 USD Million in October of 2015. Exports in India averaged 4426.08 USD Million from 1957 until 2015, reaching an all time high of 30541.44 USD Million in March of 2013.

New entrants in Forbes billionaire list : Flipkart’s founders Sachin and Binny Bansal made their debut on the country’s top 100 rich list according to Forbes magazine’s latest India rich list. Industrialist Mukesh Ambani was named India’s richest for ninth year in a row with a net worth of USD 18.9 billion followed by Sun Pharma’s Dilip Shanghvi as second richest, while Wipro’s Azim Premji retained his third place with USD 15.9 billion.

Opening of Payment Banks : 11 entities have got the licence of payment bank. Their activities include acceptance of deposits, payments and remittance services, internet banking and functioning as business correspondent of other banks. These banks will reach out to people in rural areas as well as ensuring more money comes into banking system.

Car free day: World Car Free Day was celebrated on September 22, 2015 while in Delhi, it is held in different areas on the 22nd of every month. On October 22, the transport department had held such event between from Red Fort to India Gate. The next Car-Free Day in Delhi will be held in East Delhi’s Patparganj area on December 22. A Car-Free Day encourages motorists to give up their cars for a day.

Road network : Being the second largest road network in the world at 4.7 million km, India’s road network transports more than 60 per cent of all goods in the country and 85 per cent of India’s total passenger traffic. The government has set aside 20 per cent of the investment of US$ 1 trillion reserved for infrastructure during the 12th Five-Year Plan (2012–17) to develop the country’s roads.

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Details of UPSC IES/ISSE, 2016


The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) has invited the applications for UPSC Indian Economic Service (IES) / Indian Statistical Service Examination (ISSE) 2016. Those candidates, who are eligible and interested, can apply for the post through the prescribed format on or before 12 February 2016. Last Date of Application is 12 February 2016.

To Apply

The candidates, who are eligible and interested, shall apply online for the post through the prescribed format along with other necessary documents on or before 12 February 2016.

Eligibility Criteria

    • Age limit is minimum 21 years and maximum 30 years.
    • For Indian Economic Service (IES), the candidate must have obtained a Post-Graduate Degree in Economics/Applied Economics/Business Economics/Econometrics from a University incorporated by of an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other Educational Institutes established by an Act Parliament or declared to be deemed as University under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956 or a Foreign University approved by the Central Government from time to time.
    • For Indian Statistical Service Examination, the candidate must have obtained a Bachelor’s Degree with Statistics/Mathematical Statistics/Applied Statistics as one of the subject or a Master’s degree in Statistics/Mathematical Statistics/Applied Statistics from a University incorporated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other Educational Institutes established by an Act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as University under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956 or a Foreign University approved by the Central Government from time to time.

Number of Vacancies:

• Number of Vacancies in Indian Economic Service: 15 Posts
• Number of Vacancies in Indian Statistical Service: 13 Posts

The selection of the candidates will be done on the basis of interview/exam conducted by the UPSC.

AIPMT Examinations: CBSE answers to the students’ queries

education news

To give the answers to the students’ queries regarding the All India Pre Medical Test (AIPMT) 2016, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has uploaded the necessary details on its website and has sent out the notifications regarding the same.

The questions that have been asked a lot about, by the students have been related to the medium of language for examination, qualification impacting eligibility of candidates, change of examination centre, photograph/document-related doubts, refund of excess fee etc.

The notifications that were released by the CBSE to answer the queries included the following points:

  1. Students must read the bulletin carefully before submitting the application form.
  2. The exam will be conducted in a bilingual language, with English or Hindi papers given to the students.
  3. No change of examination centre will be allowed once the choice is submitted. Incorrect entries cannot be changed. However, this will have no effect on the candidate’s eligibility for the AIPMT exam.
  4. The last point was noted on the background of the board, having provided nine mobile and telephone numbers, along with one toll-free number, to respond to the general queries of the candidates.


Since Independence, we have pursued the dream of eliminating poverty from India. We have chosenthe path of removing poverty byempowering the poor.”PM Modi at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit “The finest inheritance needs constant care for preservation.  Our institutions of democracy are under stress. The Parliament has been converted into an arena of combat rather than debate”.President Pranab Mukherjee on disruptions in Parliament
“It is not just a questionof historical responsibility, theyalso have the most room to make thecuts and make the strongest impact.Developed countries must meet their$100bn-a-year climatefinance pledge.”PM Modi at Paris climatesummit “I don’t think we wereexcessively aggressive (on 50-basispoint rate cut)… it’s not a Diwali present.”RBI Governor Raghuram Rajanon repo rate cut
“Your (government) corporatefriends want land of our nation, youare weakening the farmers and then youwill hit them with the ordinance axe.”Congress VP Rahul Gandhi on Land
Acquisition bill
“With the help of people, we willmake Delhi a city which both poor and richwill feel proud of; the huge mandate was”very scary and we should live upto people’s expectations”.Delhi Chief Minister Kejriwalon winning Delhi elections
“We were congratulated by thePM and leaders from all over thecountry. Despite what happened duringelections, we want to move aheadin a positive way.”Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumaron winning Bihar election “Why should I be scared ofanyone? I am Indira Gandhi’sdaughter-in-law, I am not scared of anyone.”Congress president Sonia Gandhi onappearing before the court in theNational Herald case.
“Basically, they (congress) do notwant the GST, which is essential forreforms in the nation, to be passed.They want to stall nation’s progress,”BJP leader Siddhart Nath Singh on GST “The financial loss due torecord-breaking rainfall in Chennaiand several parts of Tamil Nadu mayeven exceed Rs 15,000 crore mark asChennai has come to a virtual standstilland is in the grip of fear and panic.”Assocham on Chennai floods
“I have made it clear that wewill hunt down terrorists whothreaten our country, whereverthey are; this is a core principle ofmy presidency: if you threaten America,you will find no safe haven.”US President Barack Obama on ISIS “If a judge of Supreme Courtcan pool cars (with brother judges),it sends a message to the people thatwe have no problem. We can walkdown or even take a bus.”Chief Justice of India TS Thakuron odd-even car day formula
“Whenever I start feeling tooarrogant about myself, I take a tripto the US. The immigration guys kickthe star out of my stardom…”Shah Rukh Khan on the occasionof turning 50 “My philosophy is to not bescared of anyone. If I play well, great;if I don’t, I learn from the match and move”.Saina Nehwal on confidence building
“That’s like a statesman. Padosise aise hi rishte hone chahiyen(this is the kind of relations we should have with neighbours),”Minister of External AffairsSushma Swaraj on PM Modi’sunscheduled visit to Pakistan ‘Start-up India Stand Up India’will bring a big opportunity for youngpeople across the country, be inmanufacturing, servicesector or agriculture,”PM Modi on Mann ki Baat


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Uneven Monsoon & Its Effect on Indian Economy


The word ‘monsoon’ has its literary origins in Hindi ‘mausam’ which literally means‘season.’ The seasons have a fixed tendency to change and sadly, so does the monsoon.  For a country like India, where so much rides on a good monsoon, 2015 has been a rude shock.

Uneven vs Deficit

Before we dwell into the facts and figures pertaining to monsoon this year, we must understand the two terms: uneven rainfall and deficit monsoon.

‘Uneven rainfall’ means that the rainfall distribution is ‘uneven’ across a particular geographical spread (due to geographical reasons). It also means that monsoon occurrences have not been uniform. For example, let’s assume that rice cultivation needs constant moderate rainfall for a month. Now, if there is any irregularity in the rainfall pattern in this duration, it can lead to crop damage.

‘Deficit Monsoon’ on the other hand means that the actual rainfall in a certain geographical spread is lower than the expected level.

The status of the monsoon this year

The Southwest monsoon (beginning of June to September end) has ended with a shortfall of 14%. According to the Indian Monsoon Department (IMD), during the period from 1st January 2015 to 26th October 2015, only a few regions have experienced more than average rainfall. These include the state of J&K and the Lakshadweep islands. As expected, the coastal regions of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala have received average rainfall. Even the western half of Andhra Pradesh has been sufficiently drenched. But for all the rest of the country, it has either been below average or severely inadequate rainfall. On the whole, the country received a total rainfall of 760.6 mm as compared to the required average of 887.5 mm.

The Northeast monsoon has already shown its scary face in Tamil Nadu. The floods in the Southern region have been documented as being one of the biggest natural disasters to have hit India in 2015. The death toll had crossed 280 on Dec 4; thousands had escaped the affected regions; businesses, schools, colleges, everything was shut down. ASSOCHAM has estimated that the financial losses exceed INR 15,000 crores. All of this is because of an uneven monsoon. It is true that the real reason for the storm is an issue for debate, but still the fact remains that El Nino has dealt a bad hand to India this time. And come next year, everyone would be on tenterhooks for what comes then.

Impact of Monsoon on Agriculture

This goes without saying that rainfall deficit always has bad effect on agricultural output.  But, how bad is the impact of deficit monsoon this time?

60% of India’s population’s livelihood depends on agricultural output. Monsoon thus, plays a vital role in the Indian economy. Due to uneven monsoon this time, it is estimated that by the end of 2015, the agricultural sector growth would reduce by 5% to that of the previous year.

Look at the scenario: In the year 2015, Andhra Pradesh, which is considered to be one of the largest rice producing states in the country, faced severe crop damage due to drought.  However, there are some parts of the country where not only the rainfall deficit but also the uneven distribution of rainfall has damaged the crops to a large extent. For example, in West Bengal, floods have affected the paddy fields.

So, here’s the situation: if the agricultural output falls, exports for the produce will naturally fall too. This would lead to lesser income generation for the producers. This is why, not only the farmers’ wages growth has plummeted to 8% but also there is going to be a sharp decrease in the farmers’ incomes leading to economic tension. All of this would also lead to less rural demand (because of the less paying capacity). If the farmers’ income goes down, then that has direct impact on the FMCG sector. If the demand of FMCG products goes down in the rural areas then the volume growth of FMCG products goes down to 8-10%.


All around the country, severe temperature increase has been reported. From Mumbai, where unusual heat conditions have troubled citizens for the first time in October, and where rapeseed sowing has been pushed back a couple of weeks because of the scorching heat, to Hyderabad, Indore, Delhi, Jaipur and other cities and villages, all places have recorded severe heating up. The El Nino event in the Pacific is considered to be the major reason behind the increase. Coupled with that, conditions in the Indian Ocean have not been conducive to a normal weather. This has led to a decreased rainfall which has further reduced any cooling effect that could have set in due to evaporation. This is not just the case with India. All countries in the El Nino zone are experiencing a similar turmoil. October was one of the hottest months ever for Australia in about a 100 years.


Irregularity in the rains will lead to a reduction in the agricultural output, which would in turn decrease the growth in the agriculture sector. Now imagine, if the agriculture production is reduced and demand for the produce is the same as that of the last year, then naturally, the prices of agricultural output will shoot up, leading to retail price inflation, which has been the case with staple vegetables like onion and pulses seeing a sharp increase in the retail prices.

Power Sector

Due to rainfall deficit, there would be less storage of water in hydroelectric dams. Less water storage would lead to lesser electricity generation. This would not only be a problem for civilians, but it will have a huge negative impact on industrial growth too.

Areas of improvement

Government should be pro-active in taking preemptive steps to curb the problems of deficit rainfall. There should be measuresin order to save water (by creating more water reservoirs or dams) which could be used just for irrigational purposes. Farmers should be imparted more skills so that even if they face draught or excess rainfall, they can make their living from different skill sets. They should also be educated so that they could produce crops that suit the existing climatic conditions.

And, let’s not forget the fact that farmer suicide accounts for 11.2% of suicides in India. Can we simply blame the weather conditions for that? Can we do away with the situation by saying that they have less willpower to deal with severe conditions in their lives? I will leave you with a question to ponder upon: Is providing relief packages or relief funds to farmers, sufficient enough to save them from committing suicide?

(To find more search articles, Buy “The Mega Yearbook” – Click on the image below;)


Calendar for Upcoming Competitive Exams – 2016

List of Competitve Exams 2016

Disha Publications brings you a complete list of upcoming exams of SBI ,Olympiad, GATE, IBPS, RRB, entrance exams, SSC, LIC, NDA, AFCAT, UPSC, IBPS etc and many more. In order to be keep a track of each upcoming exam , keep a note of the information provided here. We aspire to keep our readers well informed so that they remain ahead of others. Remain well informed and catch hold of the most appropriate study material and books you need to consult to excel in competitive exams.

List of Competitive Exams – 2016
1 SBI Specilist officer 17-Jan
 2 English Olympiad 20th Jan 2016
28th Jan 2016
 3 GATE January 30 to February 07, 2016
 4 IBPS specialist officer 30-Jan-16
5 RRB Non technical online test march-may 2016
6 mhcet mba Expected date march 2016
7 CTET 21-Feb
8 SSC Sub inspector 20-Mar-16
9 SSC CGL(Tier 1) 8 may 2016
22 may 2016
 10 SSC CHSL (tier 1) 25 sept 2016
9 oct 2016
16 oct 2016
11 LIC AAO 2016 5,6,13 march
12 CDS 14-Feb-16
13 NDA 17-Apr-16
14 CSAT (civil services prelim) 7-Aug-16
15 CDS 23-Oct-16
 16 NDA 18-Sep-16
 17 civil services main 3-Dec-16
 18 SSC CGL (tier 2) 13 august/14 august 2016
 19 SSC junior Engg 11-Dec-16
 20 AFCAT 21-Feb-16
21 DRDO common test no date annouced
22 IBPS PO VI Prelim 16 oct , 22 oct, 23 oct
 23 IBPS PO VI Mains 20-Nov
 24 IBPS Clerk VI Prelim 26 nov, 27 nov, 3 dec, 4 dec
25 IBPS Clerk VI Mains 31 dec, 1 jan 17
 26 IBPS VI Specialist officer 28 jan and 29 jan 17

Guide to SSC Sub-Inspector, Assistant Sub-Inspector and Intelligence Officer Recruitment The Mega YearBook 2016Guide to RRB Non Technical Recruitment ExamCTET PAPER-1CTET Paper-2CDS 9 Years Topic-wise Solved Papers (2007-2015)

HRD Ministry proposes compulsory aptitude tests before JEE

HRD proposes compulsory aptitude tests before JEE

HRD ministry plans to arrange for a national-level screening test for the Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) candidates. The test has been proposed to be a measure to minimize coaching needs.

This will make it necessary for the candidates hoping to take admission in the colleges like Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), National Institutes of Technology (NITs), and other centrally-funded technical institutions, to take an aptitude test before they appear for JEE.

People from the education industry have different views on the proposal. Former JEE Chairperson Professor P. V. Balaji have different opinion. He opines that an aptitude test would result in students having to take aptitude coaching. This would be an additional requirement for students.

According to him the coaching industry will rather flourish further and parents & children will be under more stress. If an aptitude test is conducted more than once, most students would want to take the test a number of times.

On the other hand, the Director of Aakash Educational Services Pvt Ltd has a different opinion on this. According to him, the new test would be able to help the students determine if they are fit for JEE or not, even before their Board exams. If need be, this would give them time to change their track and focus on a different college and career. He opines that the fears of additional pressure remains, but the government should think about the ways of helping students, rather than curbing coaching classes.

How to Accommodate Rituals in Modern India?

India is a country with a rich history that spans thousands of years. It was home to the ancient Indus valley civilisation, one of the oldest civilisations of the world. Hinduism, the world’s oldest religion, is practised with full vigour and vibrancy in India. Indians celebrate thousands of festivals every year, some of which date all the way back to the Vedic age; the diversity of cultural practices, rituals, costumes, customs and beliefs across the breadth of the country is just enormous. Some might infer from these contentions that India is a country mired in religious dogma and is backward in its approach to the modern world. But as one looks underneath, one will find a series of transitions and changes through which the Indian society has continuously adapted to the changing cultural and economic dynamics of the world. This is well demonstrated by the fact that the Indian civilisation stood the test of time even when great civilisations like those of Egypt and Rome met their fall. India, as illustrated in the following sections, is a great case study for analysing how rituals and traditions can be accommodated in the modern era.

One of the biggest rituals that most Indians still follow is that of traditional marriage. Whether individuals are Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Sikh, or of any other faith, they still enter into wedlock following proper rites and rituals. These wedding functions often go on for days, which is why the adage ‘the big fat Indian wedding’ is so popular all over the world. However, a set of new trends has slowly emerged in the last 2-3 decades. Due to a strong influence of western culture and ways of thought, many couples now opt for understated weddings with an intimate gathering and small-scale arrangements. Many other go for court marriages, choosing to spend more money on their travel plans after the wedding. This paradigm shift in the nature and extent of wedding rituals is also accompanied by a marked shift in people’s choice of partners. Young Indians are increasingly marrying outside their communities and into other religions and castes, an exercise that has for centuries been a taboo throughout India. This phenomenon, like most other changes in Indian society, is a direct outcome of the modernisation of Indian tradition under onslaught by foreign cultures.


Mixed Marriage Rates


The practices of child marriage, unsuitable marriages (huge age gaps or other fundamental incompatibilities in partners), and polygamy are being obliterated to a large extent due to preventive action by the State as well as the socio-economic realities of modern times. Families have reduced in size from extended joint families to nuclear or small joint family. We have, however, still not successfully removed some of the ritualistic social evils that have been an inherent part of the Indian society since ancient times. The practice of dowry is one such ritual which, despite all education and modernisation, does not seem to abate in modern India. Particularly prevalent in certain pockets, like Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and many states of North India, most of all in Haryana, dowry is shrouded under the garb of ‘gifts to the bride’. But at its core, it is an extortionist and exploitative activity that sets unrealistic standards for the society and specific communities at large. Thousands of poor families who are not able to afford a good enough dowry take out huge loans every year to marry off their daughters to greedy patriarchal families. This further indebts the already poor, forcing them into a lifelong state of anxiety, poverty, and often bonded labour.



(Source: http://indiatogether.org/manushi/issue148/dowry4.jpg)

An ancient Indian tradition that has immense application and use in modern times is that of medicine and healing methods. Ayurveda, Siddha and Yoga are holistic systems that promote oneness between the body, the mind, and the environment. The profound knowledge base of these traditional Indian systems is now being tapped into by modern institutions all over the world. Some are quick to dismiss ayurveda while others swear by them. Choosing the right kind of treatment – Allopathy, Ayurveda or Siddha – can be a confusing affair and it may be a personal choice. However, in this fast-paced world, everybody wants quick-fixes.



Ayurveda, an ancient Indian system of medicine (Source: www.gayatridham.com/)

Religious rituals also continue to permeate the lives of people in modern India. Devotees across the nation still practice religious rituals such as cattle worship, animal sacrifices, and idol immersion in water bodies. While the importance of these traditions to specific communities cannot be denied, their implications for the natural environment must also be assessed. Alternative new-age rituals need to be evolved so that communities and individuals can continue to follow the cultural practices they identify with, but without disturbing the ecological balance of the planet.

It is also worthy to note that in some section of the society, religious practice is fast turning into a highly personal activity, to be performed in private; but on the other hand, religion is making a protracted re-entry into the socio-political realm, creating fault lines between otherwise united and peacefully co-existing communities. Religion has historically played the role of guiding individuals on to the righteous path, forging a feeling of social unity, and bringing people together to pray. But it has begun to serve vested political interests in modern India, a dangerous trend that threatens to undermine its ritualistic and uniting qualities. It is thus a pressing need to reclaim religion as a private activity, and to promote a sense of cultural and religious harmony, not one of difference and intolerance.

It is so far visible that rituals have a way of fitting seamlessly into the personal and socio-political domains of modern India. A discussion about modernity and India cannot however be concluded without taking into consideration Yogendra Singh’s seminal critique on the Modernisation of Indian Tradition. He says that Indian modernity is not an organic, bottom-up process that emanated from the grassroots. It has been imposed in a top-down fashion on Indian society as a result of external influence, beginning in the colonial era and continuing through the reforms of the 1990s. He contrasts this with Europe, where the advent of modernity was a product of the Renaissance and scientific and cultural revolutions. It has been 68 years to Independence, but India continues to experience an underlying tension between its ancient ritual traditions and the Western lifestyle. There is no real conflict between cultural rituals and western lifestyle, as long as both are based on a just, progressive, inclusive and largely contemporary way of thinking.

While the urban setting has westernised completely, rural India is still battling a state of constant flux between the old and the new, the acceptable and the unacceptable, the traditional and the practical. For modernity to be truly internalised by the Indian people, it needs to pervade not their clothing or cultural practices, but their minds and ways of thought. We must hold on to our historical identity, because it defines who we are. We must preserve our languages and culture, for a civilisation is rooted in its culture. And yet, we must let go of regressive, overtly ritualistic and dogmatic practices in the interest of a united and growing India. A seamless synthesis of the essential features of Indian tradition with the progressive trends adopted from outside will ensure that the Indian civilisation thrives for ages to come, constantly evolving and adapting itself to new paradigms and new challenges.

The article is highly recommended for students preparing for competitive exams. In order to find more such articles, refer to the Disha publications’ Mega year book. To buy right away, click on the image given below;



UPPSC invited Online Application for 331 Posts

Uttar Pradesh Public Service Commission (UPPSC) has invited the eligible candidates to submit online applications for recruitment at several posts through the Combined State/Upper Subordinate Services Examination-2016. The candidates who are interested and eligible shall apply by February 11, 2016.

The total number of posts for which the recruitment is being done through this examination are 331. Out of 331 posts recruitments, 328 posts are general recruitments, whereas, the remaining 3 posts are special recruitments.
Eligibility criteria:

  • Educational qualification:
    The candidate who wants to apply for this post should have a Bachelor’s degree from a recognised university or institute.
  • Age limit: 
    The candidate who wants to apply for the posts should be in the age group of 21 and 40 years.
  • Application Process:
    The candidate who wants to apply for the posts is required to visit the official website and fill in the application form. After that, the candidate is required to pay the application fee and examination fee through E-challan or I-collect.
  • Selection Process:
    The candidate’s selection will be based on his/her performance in the written examinations – preliminary, mains and interview.
  • Fee:
    The candidate is required to pay a fee as exam and online processing fee of Rs 125. The candidates who belong to the reserved category are required to pay Rs 65.
  • Important Dates:
    Submission of online application starts: January 11
    Submission of online application ends: February 11
    Submission of fee for online application ends: February 8

Top MBA Colleges Accepting Score of MH CET


The top MBA (Master in Business Administration) colleges are accepting the Maharashtra Common Entrance Test (MH CET) score for the admission of the candidates. But these colleges have set the cut-offs of their own.

Following are the cut-offs declared by the colleges as the admission criteria for the candidates interested to take admission in MBA and other alike programmes. The cut-offs are for OMS category.

NOTE: For the candidates, who have the Maharashtra Domicile, the cut-offs criteria will certainly be lower than the ones given below.


S.No. College Names MH CET cut-off

(out of 200 marks)

JBIMS Mumbai 160 marks
Sydenham Institute of Management StudiesResearch and Entrepreneurship Education (SIMREE), Mumbai 150 marks
K. J. Somaiya Institute of Management Studies & Research, Mumbai 135 marks
Welingkar Institute of Management Development & Research, Mumbai 130 marks
ITM, Navi Mumbai 125 marks
6. PUMBA, Pune 120 marks
SIES College of Management Studies, Navi Mumbai 120 marks
N L Dalmia Institute of Management and Research, Mumbai 115 marks
MET Institute of Management 110 marks
Xavier Institute of Management Research, Mumbai 100 marks
Bharati Vidyapeeth’s Institute of Management Studies and Research, Navi Mumbai 90 marks

‘Stand up India’ will boost employment and entrepreneurship: Govt clarifies

Start Up India

The Government of India has approved the funds of Rs 8,000 crore that will stand guarantee for loans to new ventures. This step has been taken by the Government in order to boost employment and entrepreneurship in India.

As the reports says, the cabinet also announced ‘Stand up India’ scheme for credit facilities at lower rates to SC, ST and women entrepreneurs.

Finance Minister Arun Jaitley said, “The Cabinet, headed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, cleared the creation of a Credit Guarantee Fund for MUDRA loans”. Out of the sum of Rs 8,000 crore, Rs 3,000 crore has been given to MUDRA Credit Guarantee Fund (CGF) which will safeguard against the default of Rs 50,000 to Rs 10 lakh loan extended to small entrepreneurs.

The rest remaining Rs 5,000 crore will be given to ‘Stand Up India Credit Guarantee Fund (CGF)’ that will stand guarantee for Rs 10 lakh to Rs 1 crore loans to be provided to least 2.5 lakh SC/ST and women.

An official statement was made, “This would include increasing their familiarity with factoring services, registration with online platforms and e-market places as well as sessions on best practices and problem solving”.

Last year, the Government of India settled up the MUDRA Ltd. as a non-banking finance company (NBFC). Under the ‘Stand Up India’ scheme, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley said that banks will give loans at the ‘least applicable rate’ of interest. ‘Stand Up India’ scheme will be implemented through 1.25 lakh bank branches. This scheme is likely to be launched along with ‘Start up India’ scheme on January 16, 2016.

MUDRA scheme was launched in April 2015 and since then this scheme has already extended loans worth Rs 72,000 crore to 1.73 lakh beneficiaries. Duggal said, “Under the ‘Stand up India’ scheme, it is expected that the target of at least 2.5 lakh approvals will be met in 3 years from the launch of the scheme”.

Institutes Participating in CLAT 2016

List of institutes in CLAT 2016

Common Law Admission Test (CLAT) is an all India entrance examination. It is going to be held for the academic session 2016-17 on rotation by 17 National Law Universities (NLUs) for the admissions in to five years integrated Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Law (B.A. plus LL.B) and one year Master of Law (LL.M) programme.

The 17 NLUs that are participating, according to their year of establishment, are:

  • National Law School of India University, Bangalore (NLSIU)
  • National Academy of Legal Study and Research University of Law, Hyderabad (NALSAR)
  • The National Law Institute University, Bhopal(NLIU)
  • The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata (WBNUJS)
  • National Law University, Jodhpur (NLUJ)
  • Hidayatullah National Law University, Raipur (HNLU)
  • Gujarat National Law University, Gandhinagar (GNLU)
  • Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, Lucknow (RMLNLU)
  • Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law, Punjab (RGNUL)
  • Chanakya National Law University, Patna (CNLU)
  • The National University of Advanced Legal Studies, Kochi (NUALS)
  • National Law University Odisha, Cuttack (NLUO)
  • National University of Study and Research in Law, Ranchi (NUSRL)
  • National Law University and Judicial Academy, Assam (NLUJAA)
  • Damodaram Sanjivayya National Law University, Visakhapatnam (DSNLU)
  • Tamil Nadu National Law School, Tiruchirappalli (TNNLS)
  • Maharashtra National Law University, Mumbai (MNLU)

Those candidates, who are eligible and interested, can apply online latest by March 31. Candidates having queries related to CLAT-16 examination can call on 0175 – 2391666 – 67, 68, 69, 70 on working days from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. or can also send their queries by email to – helpdesk@clat.ac.in.

Exam details relating to SSC SI in CAPFs, ASI in CISF and SI in Delhi Police 2016

SSC SI and ASI Recruitment 2016

Staff Selection Commission (SSC) has invited the eligible and interested candidates to apply for the filling up the vacancies at several posts. Those candidates, who are interested and are eligible for the examination, can apply online for the exam by February 2, 2016. The exams have been scheduled to take place on March 20 and June 5.

Eligibility criteria

Educational qualification:

He/she should have acquired a degree in the relevant field from a recognised university or institute.

Age limit:

His/her age should be between 20 to 25 years as on January 1, 2016.

Selection procedure:

He/she will be selected on the basis of his/her performance in the written test and interview.

Application fee:

Candidates needs to pay an application fee of Rs 100 for the registration process. SC, ST and Ex-servicemen are exempted from paying the application fee while the registration process.

To apply:

The candidates who are eligible can apply through the official website of SSC, link for which is ssconline.nic.in.

Important dates:

  • Beginning of filling-up of online application: January 9.
  • Last date to part-I (registration): February 5.
  • Last date to part-I (online): February 2 till 5 pm.
  • Date of written exam for paper 1: March 20.
  • Date of written exam for paper 2: June 5.

Guide to SSC Sub-Inspector, Assistant Sub-Inspector and Intelligence Officer

Group Mathematical Olympiad Competition: Result Declared

Result for Group Mathematical Olympiad

The results of the Group Mathematical Olympiad Competition, which was conducted on December 6, 2015, have been declared by the Central board of Secondary Education (CBSE). The Olympiad was held this December in New Delhi for the students who are studying in the affiliated schools. A total of 35 students have qualified in the Olympiad, including an additional list of five girl candidates.

The Group Mathematical Olympiad Competition is conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) for those students who have exceptional mathematical capabilities. The board conducts the talent hunt examination at various levels like regional, state and international levels to identify and encourage the students with an exceptional talent.

To check the results:

  • Visit the official website of Central board of Secondary Education (CBSE), the link for which is www.cbseacademic.in.
  • Click on the link, ‘Result of CBSE Group Mathematical Olympiad-2015’.
  • Check for the name and roll number of the candidate in the pdf file.

The candidates, who have qualified the Group Mathematical Olympiad Competition, are now eligible for the Indian National Mathematical Olympiad (INMO) as a member of the CBSE group which will be held on January 17 between 1 pm and 5 pm.

If the candidates have any query regarding the Olympiad, they can contact Mr. Subhash Chand, Deputy Director, CBSE, at 011-23216220 or email at schand.cbse@gmail.com.

10 Learning Techniques for students preparing for Exams

10 Learning Techniques

Everyday, we strive hard to strengthen ourselves with knowledge and learn new things with each passing experience. Sometimes, we don’t have to put in that much of hardwork, we just have to follow some learning strategies to learn things in a better way. We are sharing information regarding such learning strategies to make learning process more qualitative and fruitful.

SSC (Junior Engineering Exam): Pattern & Tips

(SSC) Staff Selection Commission is an organization under Government of India with the objective to recruit staff for various posts in various Ministries and Departments of the Government of India and its Subordinate Offices. One of the categories of SSC exam is junior engineering SSC JE. State Service Commission has recently announced recruitment for junior engineers in the field of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering. The recruitment is done through a common entrance test followed by an interview.

The SSC JE Exam is conducted in two stages:
A. Written Test (500 marks)
B. Interview (100 marks)
Written test will consist of two papers: Paper -I and Paper-II.
Paper-I (200 Marks) will consist of Objective Type Multiple Choice questions only
Paper-II (300 Marks) will be Conventional Type questions. There will be negative marking of 0.25 marks for each wrong answer in Paper.

SSC Junior Engineer Written Exam Pattern:
Written exam will consist of Paper I (Objective type) and Paper II (Conventional Type)

Paper                Subject                Marks            Time
Paper I (i) General Intelligence & Reasoning

(ii) General Awareness

(iii) General Engineering in —

Part–A- Civil & Structural

OR Part-B- Electrical

OR Part-C- Mechanical








Paper II General Engineering in

Part–A- Civil & Structural

OR Part-B- Electrical

OR Part-C- Mechanical

300 2


Follow the following Tips to crack SSC Junior Exam:

  • Download the syllabus of SSC JE Exam, and write down the topics you are not familiar with and start preparing for these topics first.
  • Buy SSC exam books, appropriate to start your preparation. Make sure you buy the book for each section of the paper so that you don’t miss out on anything. For relevant study material, login to disha website and buy appropriate books for SSC exam preparation.
  • It needs dedication to clear SSC Junior Exam and the best way to prepare is time management.
  • Organize and plan your studies according to the learning schedule you make. Be careful of sticking to this schedule.
  • Don’t leave out on any topic and be prepared for everything. This will increase your chances of high score.
  • Learn new methods to solve questions faster so that you wouldn’t be wasting a lot of time during the exam. This will help you answer all the questions within the given time.
  • Learn shortcut technique from the researched Disha SSC exam books. This technique will help you solve the SSC exam quickly and you can solve more questions with enhanced speed.
  • Improve your speed by practicing more with mock tests and SSC sample papers available in the free download section of disha website.
  • Time yourself every time you solve questions and try to beat your score each time you do it.
  • Work on your drawbacks and on the topics you find difficult SSC Exam preparation. With regular practice and honest dedication, these weak areas can become your merits.
  • Incorporate study with everything that you do. To get rid of monotony, try different method to study.
  • Download the available mock test, notes and practice exercises available online on disha website and a wide range of practice exercises are included in SSC preparation books.
  • Practice the SSC exam sample papers available at www.dishapublications.com for 2 hours and try to finish that within the given time.
  • Be aware of negative marking and adapt yourself to the exam environment.
  • Don’t attempt those questions which you are not sure about. Remember there is negative marking in the SSC exam.
  • Remain motivated and focused on your goal. Every day hard work will help you realize your dreams.

SSC Junior Engineer

4 new elements added and completed 7th row of Periodic Table

education news

After 4 new elements have been added to the 7th row of the periodic table of Chemistry by the scientists, the row has now been completed. Scientists of Japan, Russia and America have discovered the 4 new elements on the periodic table and they are also the 1st ones to be added since 2011 when 114 and 116 were added.

“A team of Japanese scientists have met the criteria for naming a new element, the synthetic highly radioactive element 113, more than a dozen years after they began working to create it” according to the reports.

Kosuke Morita was leading the research at the government-affiliated Riken Nishina Centre for Accelerator-Based Science. He was given the notification of the decision on December 31, 2015 by the US-based International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. “Now that we have conclusively demonstrated the existence of element 113, we plan to look to the unchartered territory of element 119 and beyond,” Morita said.

A joint working group of the IUPAC and International Union of Pure and Applied Physics also made the announcement regarding the decisions on recognition of discoveries of elements 115, 117 and 118.

The atomic elements discoveries have often involved competition between the scientists. “To scientists, this is of greater value than an Olympic gold medal,” said Ryoji Noyori, former Riken president and Nobel laureate in Chemistry.

The new element 113 sits between Copernicium and Flerovium on the periodic table. A joint team of scientists in Russia and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the US were also plunging in for the naming rights of the 113 element, after announcing its discovery in 2004. Isotopes of element 113 have a very short half-life, lasting for less than a 1000th of a second, making it very difficult for the scientists to discover it.

The scientists have continued research for the last 7 years to secure a place for elements 113, 115, 117 and 118 on the periodic table. Until now, the 4 elements manifested only for a very short span of time – about a thousand of one second – making it very difficult for scientists to prove their existence.

The four elements bore temporary names so far. Element 113 has been identified as Uut, Element 115 as Uup, Element 117 as Uus and Element 118 as Uuo.

Registration starts for AIMA MAT 2016

AIMA MAT December

The registrations for the AIMA (All India Management Association) MAT (Management Aptitude Test) February 2016 have already started from January 4. Last date of application is January 23 – for online application, and January 27 – for offline application. Those candidates who are interested in applying for AIMA MAT 2016 shall apply by then.

Management Aptitude Test (MAT) is a test that is held at national level. This test is conducted to screen candidates for admissions to MBA and the other allied programmes in any B-School (national or international). MAT is conducted in the months of February, May, September and December, therefore, four times a year. The mode of the test is both, pencil paper as well as computer based.

The pencil-paper based test has been declared to be conducted on February 7 and the computer based has been declared to be conducted from February 13. If the number of candidates, who have been registered for computer based test, is limited then it can be accommodated in a single day and the test will be completed on February 13 itself.

Educational Qualification required:

If the candidate wants to apply for AIMA MAT then she/he must have acquired a bachelor’s degree in a related field from a recognised university or an institute. Those candidates who are in their final year of graduation can also apply for the test.

Paper pattern:

The test will be conducted in two different modes:

  • Paper based test
  • Computer based exam.

The test paper will include five major sections: Language Comprehension, Mathematical Skills, Data Analysis and Sufficiency, Intelligence and Critical Reasoning and Indian and Global Environment. The paper-based test will be held across 22 centres across the country, along with two set ups in Dubai and Singapore, as well. The computer-based test will be conducted across 12 centres in the country.

Admit cards:

All those candidates, who have been provisionally registered, can download their admit card from AIMA website on or after January 30.

To apply:

Candidates who are interested to apply for AIMA MAT can fill the forms, through online and offline modes.

Complete Guide for MAT and other MBA entrance exams 2nd Edition



GATE is an All-India examination which is jointly conducted by seven Indian Institute of Technology and Indian Institute of Science on behalf of the National Coordinating Board.NCB consists of  GATE, Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD), and Government of India. The major objective of GATE is to identify meritorious candidates for Postgraduate Programs in engineering at the National Level.

Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) will be held between January 30, 2016 and Feb7,    2016. GATE is one of the most challenging exam and needs proper dedication for the preparation. Candidates need to be more organised and make good preparations .In order to do so, it is advisable to follow the tips and tricks mentioned below;

Tips to Crack GATE 2016

  • Know the latest syllabus: it is important to know what to study. Go through the syllabus and read every single topic of each subject carefully mentioned in the GATE syllabus.
  • Start preparing at right time:  A time table schedule should be prepared based on one’s strengths and week areas and strictly follow your schedule till the date of exam.
  • Previous year question paper: Dedicate time on solving previous year GATE papers.
  • Select topics important for GATE Examination: Track down to find books which are easily available and in which you can easily understand the concepts. Start preparing from the basics topics, note down the basic concepts like definitions, unit, dimension etc. as well as necessary theories, formulae etc.
  • Prepare notes after referring to the GATE preparation books: Make handwritten notes according to your learning method. These notes will help you in last days of examination for quick revision.
  • Keep revising the concepts: Start revising the course a month before the exam. With this practice, on the day before exam you will be prepared enough to crack the exam.
  • Stay motivated and study seriously: Stay focused on what you want to achieve, make your goals, dreams in your mind and avoid distraction.
  • Go for self tests based on whole syllabus and if necessary take help of others in conducting self-tests.
  • Do not hold on to the entire syllabus prescribed by GATE: A selective preparation would be a very helpful and learned accurately. Memorization of any problem without a clear idea of the concept will be a futile.

Besides, these tips, its very important to use right kind of study material in order to prepare well for the exams. Buy reliable and complete set of Gate study material to be well equipped with the preparation of the GATE Exam. Buy online GATE exam preparation books, GATE electrical Engineering books, Mechanical Engineering books for GATE exam from Disha website. Candidates can also download sample papers, mock tests, previous years GATE exam solved paper from free download section of disha website. Candidates can access all the above mentioned GATE preparation material, that too, free of cost.


CTET Exam: Pattern, Tips & Right Study Material


CTET is Central teacher Eligibility Test. It is organized by the official exam authority i.e. CBSE/ CTET. The exam is held at the national level to recruit the deserving aspirants for the profession of teaching. The appearing candidates must abide by the eligibility conditions and then apply for the examination. The Exam is conducted in two parts, Paper I and Paper II. Paper I is conducted to test the eligibility of the teachers for class 1 to 5th and Paper II is conducted for the recruitment of the teachers for class 6 to 8th.

The first paper will be conducted to grant the post of primary teacher and the second paper will be held for the elementary stage. The CTET 2016 will take place in pen paper based mode.

CTET Exam Pattern:

Paper 1:

Paper 1 consists of 150 Multiple Choice questions and the total marks of this paper are 150. Questions are asked from the different subjects. Candidates are required to complete this exam within 2.30 hrs.

Subjects No. of Questions Marks
Child Development and Pedagogy 30 MCQs 30 Marks
Language I 30 MCQs 30 Marks
Language II 30 MCQs 30 Marks
Mathematics 30 MCQs 30 Marks
Environmental Studies 30 MCQs 30 Marks
Total 150 MCQs 150 Marks

Paper 2:

Paper 2 contains Multiple Choice Questions from Child Development and Pedagogy, Language I, Language II, Mathematic & Science and Social Science teaching. Time allotted is 2.30 hrs.

Subjects No. of Questions Marks
Child Development and Pedagogy (compulsory) 30 MCQs 30 Marks
Language I (compulsory) 30 MCQs 30 Marks
For Mathematics and Science teacher 30 MCQs 30 Marks
For Social Science teacher 30 MCQs 30 Marks

The tips and tricks mentioned here can prove to be extremely helpful if followed religiously by the candidates. These tips will definitely help the aspirants to qualify the examination with good percentile:

  • It is required for the students to keep track of the detailed and updated syllabus for the CTET exam and prepare thoroughly for the exam.
  • Catch hold of best preparatory material with disha CTET exam books.
  • Management of time is another key point to succeed in the exam. Keep track of the time while attempting the exam and try to move one step ahead while attempting the questions.
  • In order to deal with the doubts and practicing time management, practice free mock tests available at Disha publications website. CTET Mock tests are extremely beneficial to qualify the exam.
  • Solving the sample papers in order to practice is an important practice.
  • It is very important to remain confident throughout the preparation and maintain the level of Confidence is a must while attempting the exam.
  • Though the exam doesn’t have concept of negative marking, so the student can confidently attempt all the questions. But it is important that you attempt correct questions first.
  • The preparation must also include previous year papers so as to have an idea about the kind of questions asked in the exam. This will also help to know the exact structure of examination.
  • For practice download free disha CTET sample papers, from free download section of our site:www.dishapublication.com
  • Buy CTET exam books and download for free CTET preparatory material, CTET sample papers, CTET previous exam papes from the online portal of Disha publication.


UPSC released revised syllabus of Engineering Services examination


The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) has released a few changes in the syllabus of Engineering Services examination. These changes will be implemented 2017 onwards.

STAGE 1: Engineering Services (Preliminary Exam)

The exam will be divided into 2 papers:

Paper 1: General Studies and Engineering Aptitude Paper

Examination will be held for the duration of 2 hours. It will carry a total of 200 marks.

Paper 2: Engineering Discipline-specific paper

Examination will be held for the duration of 3 hours. It will carry a total of 300 marks.

STAGE 2: Engineering Services (Mains)

The exam will be divided into 2 papers:

Paper 1: Engineering Discipline-specific

Paper 2: Engineering Discipline-specific

Examination will be held for the duration of 3 hours. It will carry a total of 300 marks.

STAGE 3: Personality Test

This test will carry a total of 200 marks.

Broad contents of the General Studies and Engineering Aptitude Paper (Stage 1, Paper- 1)

The questions from the following topics will be set in Paper 1 of Stage 1

    1. Current issues of national and international importance relating to social, economic and industrial development
    2. Engineering aptitude covering logical reasoning and analytical ability
    3. Engineering mathematics and numerical analysis
    4. General principles of design, drawing, importance of safety
    5. Standards and quality practices in production, construction, maintenance and services
    6. Basics of energy and environment: conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, climate change, environmental impact assessment
    7. Basics of project management
    8. Basics of material science and engineering
    9. Information and communication technologies (ICT) based tools and their applications in engineering such as networking, e-governance and technology based education.
    10. Ethics and values in engineering profession

The questions in the exam paper shall be set from all the above mentioned 10 topics. The marks for each topic may vary from 5 to 15 percent of the total marks.

The candidates can check the revised syllabus of the four engineering disciplines on the official website of UPSC, link for which is upsc.gov.in.

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Result of IBPS CWE RRB-IV declared


The declaration regarding the combined result for recruitment of Office Assistants, Officer Scale I, Officer Scale II- GBO, Officer Scale II- SO and Officer Scale III in RRBs (CWE RRB-IV) has been made by Institute of Banking Personnel Selection (IBPS). The results can be obtained from the official website of IBPS, the link for which is ibps.in.

IBPS recruitment for PSBs follows the two-tier system or three-tier system. IBPS RRB & SO recruitments are two-phase processes and IBPS PO & Clerk consists of three stages.

The first phase consists of a Common Written Examination (CWE) which is followed by an interview and then the final placement. IBPS CWE is one among the most competitive examinations in India with a selection ratio of 1000:1.

To check the result:

  • Go to the official website.
  • Click on the link, ‘View your combined result for CWE & interview for Recruitment in RRBs (CWE RRB-IV)’.
  • Enter registration number or roll number and password or date of birth.
  • On submitting the details, the candidate’s result will be displayed on the screen.
  • The candidate must take a print-out for future reference.

Once the exam and interview phases end, the institute forms a rank list. The same will be used to fill in the vacancies that are existing and upcoming in the participating banks for a period of one year from the date of announcement of the final results.

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12-year old boy qualifies for class 12 International Biology Olympiad

education news

Here comes another proud moment for India, by qualifying for the second round of the International Biology Olympiad (IBO), a 12-year-old boy from Kota has become the youngest person to do so. The International Biology Olympiad (IBO) an exam largely attempted by only class 12 students.

Vijay Singh, former National Coordinator of the Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education (HBCSE) and a scientist at Ramaswamy Research Fellowship, said, “Jeevesh is the youngest student to clear the first round of IBO. Seven years ago, a Class 8 student had cleared the exam”. He further said that there were 15,000 students who appeared for the exam which was conducted by HBCSE. Out of so many students, only 3,000 were selected for the second round and Jeevesh is the youngest among them all.

There are five rounds to be cleared for the medal in the prestigious International Biology Olympiad which are mainly attempted by students of Class 12 only.

Brajesh Meshwari, Director of the Allen Career Institute in Kota, said, “Being a student of Class 7, Jeevesh could not opt for Biology as his subject but he succeeded in qualifying for the IBO”. Jeevesh has been studying with his sister Harsha, an All India Pre-Medical Test (AIPMT) aspirant, in Kota in Allen Career Institute.

Jeevesh had his start from Noona Mazra, a small village in Jhajhar district of Haryana. Jeevesh has previously achieved many laurels, including an All India Rank one in National Maths Talent Contest (NMTC), fifth rank in National Maths Olympiad, 14th Rank in National Science Olympiad, Rank 25 in Cyber Olympiad and Rank 50 in National Level Science Talent Search Examination (NSTSE).

Jeevesh, son of a Delhi policeman, said, “I would generally study the biology books of my elder sister in my spare time and that helped me clear the National Science Exam of Biology (NSEB) and qualify for the next rounds of IBO”.

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Disha’s IBPS/SBI specialist IT Officer book: A huge hit

Professional knowledge for IBPS Specialist Officer

IBPS department has scheduled IBPS Specialist Officer Exam on January30,2016 . All eligible candidates who have registered online , should be start their preparation for SO Exam right away.

The IBPS SO Recruitment process is comprised of the following stages –

  1. Common Written Examination (CWE),
  2. Interview followed by the Document Verification
  3. Final Allotment.

Every applicant has to qualify all the three rounds in order to get recruited. It is important to be aware of the pattern to crack the exam and prepare accordingly.

Paper Pattern For Specialist IT Officer:

Paper name Maximum Marks Total Time
SO Reasoning Paper 50 120 Minutes
SO English Language Paper 25
SO Quantitative Aptitude Paper 50
SO Professional Knowledge Paper 75
Total 200

In order to clear IBPS exam, candidates need to be thorough with the syllabus and cover each and every topic. To prepare each topic well, catch hold of right study material which is comprised of all the required topics to be covered for the exam.

Disha comes with a well researched material, compiled in the form of book. The Disha Publications’ IBPS Specialist Officer Book has emerged out to be a huge hit among the students preparing for the IBPS special officer exam. The book enters top ten books on Amazon.

Professional Knowledge for IBPS Specialist Officer

Professional Knowledge for IBPS/SBI Specialist IT Officer Exam is an excellent book for those who want to succeed in IBPS Specialist IT Officer exam. The book contains 11 chapters and each chapter provides theory as per the updated syllabus of the exam. Every chapter in the book ends with practice exercises to help aspirants practice the concepts discussed in the chapters.

Past solved papers from IBPS and SBI has been provided in the starting of the book to help aspirants get an insight into the examination pattern and the types of questions asked in the past years examination.

In order to boost the confidence of the students, the book a contains a set of 200 practice questions divided into four sections: Reasoning Ability, Quantitative Aptitude, English Language, Professional Knowledge (IT) ,designed exactly as per the latest pattern of IBPS special officer exam .

The IBPS preparation book for specialist officer is an ideal and quick resource guide for IBPS/SBI and other Nationalised Bank Specialist Officers’ Recruitment Examination. All the above mention features of the book make it a hit among students preparing for IBPS/SBI Specialist IT Officer Exam and trigger it to enter among the top ten books on Amazon.

Date Sheet released for CBSE Class 10

CBSE Class 10th Date Sheet 2016

The date sheet for Secondary School Examinations (Class 10) has been released by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). The examination of Class 10 has been scheduled to begin from March 1, 2016 and will continue till March 28, 2016. The timing of the examination will be from 10.30 am.

The students can check the schedule on the official website of Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), the link for which is www.cbse.nic.in.

Date sheet for Secondary School Examination (Class 10) 2016 (Scheme 2)

March 1

401 Dynamics Retail (o)

402 Info Tech (o)

403 Security (o)

404 Auto Tech (o)

406 Int. Tourism (o)

461 Dynamics Retail(c)

462 Info Tech (c)

463 Security (c)

464 Auto Tech (c)

466 Int. Tourism(c)

March 2

086 Science

090 Science W/o Prac

March 3

007 Telugu

018 French

076 National Cadet Corps

166 Information & Comm Tech

March 5

049 Painting

096 Spanish

March 8

002 Hindi Course A

006 Tamil

085 Hindi Course B

March 10

087 Social Science

March 12

064 Home Science

March 14

165 Foundation of IT

March 15

101 English Comm.

184 English Lang & Lit

March 17

031 Music Car Vocal

032 Music Car Ins Mel.

033 Music Car Ins Per.

034 Music Hind. vocal

035 Music Hind.ins Mel

036 Music Hind.ins Per

March 19

041 Mathematics

March 21

003 Urdu Course A

010 Gujarati

011 Manipuri

017 Tibetan

023 Persian

024 Nepali

025 Limboo

026 Lepcha

093 Tangkhul

094 Japanese

095 Bhutia

098 Mizo

099 Bahasa Melayu

122 Comm. Sanskri

March 22

154 Elem. Of Business

254 Elem. Of Book-k & Accy

354 E-typewriting English

454 E-typewriting Hindi

March 26

004 Punjabi

005 Bengali

009 Marathi

012 Malayalam

013 Odia

014 Assamese

015 Kannada

016 Arabic

020 German

March 28

008 Sindhi

021 Russian

097 Kashmiri

CBSE released the date sheet for Class 12

CBSE Class 12th 2016 datesheet

The date sheet for Senior School Certificate Examination (Class 12) has been released by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). The examination of Class 12 has been scheduled to begin from March 1, 2016 and will continue till April 22, 2016. The timing of the examination will be from 10.30 am.

The students can check the schedule on the official website of CBSE, the link for which is www.cbse.nic.in.

Date Sheet for Senior School Certificate Examination 2016 is given below:

March 1

001 English Elective

101 English Elective-c

301 English Core

March 3

054 Business Studies

199 Bahasa Melayu

624 Elect Appliances

654 B Therapy & Hair Des

745 Beauty & Hair

762 Basic Horticulture

778 Printed Textile

789 Op & Maint. Of Comm Dev

March 5

042 Physics

070 Heritage Crafts

123 Persian

197 Kashmiri

605 Sect Prac & Accntg

619 Cash Mgmt & H-keep

623 Electrical Machine

630 Fabricatn.tech-ii

632 Ac & Refrgtn-iii

642 Vegetable Culture

655 Cosmetic Chemistry

658 Optics

661 Clinical Biochemistry

663 Fund Of Nursing Ii

667 Radiography-genl

684 Textile Science

699 I T System

731 Child Health Nursg

751 Bakery

776 Garment Construction

777 Traditional Ind.txt

787 Electrical Machine

800 Security

March 8

027 History

114 Assamese

192 Bodo

620 Lending Operations

660 Lab Medicines

744 Retail Services

750 Logistics, Op & SCM

766 Business Operation

March 9

043 Chemistry

625 Applied Physics

631 Fabrication Tech-iii

643 Floriculture

657 Biology-ophthalmic

664 Comm. health Nur Ii

666 Radiation Physics

685 Desg & Pat Making

700 Business Data Proc

737 Beverage Services

746 Holistic Health

752 Confectionery

765 Floriculture

781 Cost Accounting

March 10

003 Urdu Elective

104 Punjabi

111 Manipuri

112 Malayalam

115 Kannada

303 Urdu Core

March 11

002 Hindi Elective

106 Tamil

110 Gujarati

125 Limboo

126 Lepcha

193 Tangkhul

195 Bhutia

302 Hindi Core

March 12

046 Engg. Graphics

075 Human Rights & Gs.

117 Tibetan

194 Japanese

196 Spanish

613 Marketing

626 Mech. Engineering

779 Textile Chem Proc.

783 Marketing

796 Web Application

March 14

041 Mathematics

073 Know Trad & Prac.

621 Mgmt Of Bank Offce

644 Post Harv Tech & prs

656 Yoga Anatomy &phys

659 Ophthalmic Tech.

662 Microbiology (mlt)

668 Radiography-spl

730 First Aid & Med. Care

733 Health Care Mgmt

742 Clinical Bio & m.ii

March 16

067 Multimedia & Web T

607 Typography &ca Eng

609 Typography &ca Hin

628 Autoshop Rep& Prac

734 Food Production Iii

739 Crtv & Comm In M M

756 Int To Hosp. Mgmt

774 Fabric Study

March 17

055 Accountancy

March 18

028 Political Science

045 Biotechnology

741 Laboratory Med.ii

743 Retail Operations

780 Financial Accounting

March 19

053 Fashion Studies

068 Agriculture

079 Library & Inf Sci.

113 Odia

120 German

608 Shorthand English

610 Shorthand Hindi

622 Engineering Sci.

686 Clothing Const

701 Dtp Cad & Multimedia

785 Banking

795 Database Mgmt Appl

March 21

044 Biology

633 Ac & Refrgtn-iv

782 Taxation

794 Derivative Mkt Op.

March 22

056 Dance Kathak

057 Dance Bharatnatyam

059 Dance Odissi

060 Dance Manipuri

062 Dance Mohiniyattam

069 Cr Wrtng Tr Study

072 Mass Media Studies

108 Sindhi

606 Off. Communication

748 Info Storage & Ret

749 Intg. Trnsprt Oper

753 Front Office Oper.

757 Trvl & Tour Oper.

784 Salesmanship

790 Tsm Of Ele.equip

793 Capital Market Op.

March 26

065 Informatics Prac.

083 Computer Science

754 Adv Front Off. Op.

763 Olericulture

775 Basic Pattern Dev.

786 Insurance

March 28

048 Physical Education

March 29

049 Painting

050 Graphics

051 Sculpture

052 App/commercial Art

788 Electrical Appl.

March 31

030 Economics

April 1

074 Legal Studies

April 2

037 Psychology

124 Nepali

April 4

039 Sociology

071 Graphic Design

April 6

031 Music Car.vocal

032 Music Car.ins.mel.

033 Music Car.ins.per.

034 Music Hind.vocal

035 Music Hind.ins.mel

036 Music Hind.ins.per

665 Mat&child H.nur Ii

April 7

029 Geography

747 Lib Sys And Res Mg

April 11

022 Sanskrit Elective

105 Bengali

107 Telugu

109 Marathi

116 Arabic

118 French

198 Mizo

322 Sanskrit Core

627 Auto Engineering

738 Evol & Forms M M

April 12

064 Home Science

April 16

040 Philosophy

066 Entrepreneurship

604 Offce Proc.& Prac.

729 B Concept-h &med T

732 Midwifery

736 Food Services

740 Geospatial Tech

April 18

078 Theatre Studies

April 19

735 Food Production Iv

April 22

076 National Cadet Corps

24 CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Physics, Chemistry, Biology24 CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics