25% Surge in MBA Enrolments

There has been a 25 % surge in the enrolment of students in Masters of Business Administration (MBA) in the state of Maharashtra. The exam is scheduled to be held on March 12 and 13. According to experts this rise can be attributed to several investments made under the central government’s Make in India Campaign programme and thus an increasing need of management professionals in the country.

As many as 74,000 students from the state have registered for entrance test, as compared to 60,000 students appearing last year.

The Common Entrance Test Cell had invited applications for the MAH-MBA/MBA/MMS-CET 2016 to be conducted for admission to courses at government, university-managed and unaided colleges in the state.

The CET, scheduled to be held in mid-March will consist of objective type questions. There will not be any penalty for wrong answers. There would be five choices for each question. Those who qualify in the written test will have to appear for few other rounds of tests.

UPS SSC Announces Results of Junior Engineer Online

Uttar Pradesh Subordinate Service Selection Commission has announced results of the Junior Engineer examination held on December 27, 2015. UPS SSC conducted a written test to recruit qualified and skilled people to 771 posts of Junior Engineer (Civil, Mechanical and Electrical).

Approximately about a lakh of candidates appeared for the exam.

To have an access to the results for the UPS SSC Junior Engineers the candidates should visit the official website i.e. www.upsssc.gov.in For those who had appeared for the fusion engineering whether electrical, mechanical or civil the results have been delayed.

These results will be available till March 5th, 2016.

Steps to Access the results:

  • Visit the official website
  • Enter your examination roll number
  • Merit list as well as the marks obtained will be displayed simultaneously.
  • Result will be displayed

Ministry of Defence invites application for recruitment to various posts


The Ministry of Defence (MOD) has invited applications for 128 posts in various parts of India. Ministry of Defence is responsible for co-ordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the Indian armed forces. The Indian Armed forces (Including Indian Army, Indian Air Force, Indian Navy) and the Indian Coast Guard are under the supervision of Ministry of Defence. The ministry of Defence works closely with the National Security Council, Ministry of External Affairs and the Ministry of Home Affairs. Ministry of Defence has come up with the latest recruitment to 166 posts all over India.

Various Posts are as follows:

  1. Tradesman –Vacancies-98 ,Eligibility: 10th,
  2. Fireman – Vacancies-07- Eligibility- Matriculation
  3. Multi-tasking staff- Vacancies-01, Eligibilty-10 Class
  4. Lower Divisional Clerks- Vacancies-10, Eligibility-12th Class
  5. Material Assistant- Vacancies-12, Eligibility-Graduation

Age Limit:

For the post of Material Assistant the age bar is from 18-27 years but for all other jobs the upper age limit is 25 years as on closing date to receipt of completed application form.

Documents required while submitting the application:

The candidates can send the duly filled application to the address given below disclosed notification along with self-attested photo copies to support the eligibility criteria, two latest passport size photographs and self-addressed envelope with Rs. 25 stamp.

Last Date of Submission

The date of notification is 19th February 2016. Candidates can submit the application 21 days from the date of notification. Those residing in remote areas can apply within 28 days.

Those who want to know more can visit the official website.





Need of the hour: Computer Based Testing

Computer Based Testing

With the increased usage of digital media every aspect of our educational system is getting transformed. To meet the global standards in recruitment and assessment Indian institutions are not lagging behind.
In the recent years there have been numerous instances of allegations of cheating or proxy cheating for several high stake competitive exams, to overcome their fears an increasing number of institutions are now choosing to invest in computer based testing (CBT) and doing away with pen, pencil format. Facts show that almost all high aspiring, high stakes examinations in India giving an option of a computer based test.

• In a recent study it was found the India led Asia Pacific nations in the annual internet user growth. With the easing out of discomfort in rural areas also about the use of computer and internet it has become easier to have computer based tests.
• Computer Based Tests can believed to be the best way to eliminate any error or bias by humans in grading answers and hence has increased quality and reliability of the test. It also helps in storing a large number of data which was not possible otherwise.
• Computer Based Testing was believed to be costlier as compared to that done by humans. But it was realised that it incurred the same expenditure considering the time spent in checking. Added to it was the vulnerability factor of cheating, fraud etc.

• It is the need of the times that a reliable testing agency invests in security systems, people and safeguards that provide Indian students fair and accurate scores. This will also help build confidence; a lot of candidates put in a lot of diligent work and so expect the results accurately free from personal bias of the examiner. A good testing agency must rely on its managers who will make sure that fair and secure exam questions and answers at the item-writing level and also that all content and data are securely accessed stored and transferred.

• With the increased digitisation of the country it has become far easier to get an access to the internet; which in turn has facilitated computer based testing.

Admissions open for AIIMS Post graduate courses, 2016

AIIMS PG 2016 Admission Notification

All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi has invited applications for admissions to post graduate courses of MD/ MS/ M.Ch (6 years MDS) for July 2016 session.

The number of seats available in each speciality for the July 2016 session is as follows:


Speciality Number of seats available
Anaesthesiology 06 (UR -02,SC-01, ST-01
Community Medicine 08 (UR-03, OBC-02, SC-02&Spon. Foreign-02)
Dermatology & Venereology 02( UR-01, SC-01)
Emergency Medicine 02 9UR_01, Spon. Foreign-01)
Geriatric Medicine 02 (UR-02)
Medicine 07 (UR-04, SC-01, OBC-02)
Nuclear medicine 02,(UR-01, ST-01)
Obst.& Gynaecology 14 (UR-07, OBC-04, SC-02, ST-01)
Ophthalmology 11 (UR-05,OBC-03, SC-02, ST-01)
Orthopaedics 02 (UR-01, SC-01)
Palliative Medicine 02 (UR-01, OBC-01) and spon/foreign-01
Paediatrics 06 (UR-03, SC-01, OBC_02, spon/foreign-01)
Physical Medical & Rehabilitation 01 (OBC-01,7 Spon./foreign-01)
Psychiatry 04 ( UR-02, OBC-01, SC-01)
Radio Diagnosis 07 (UR-04, OBS-02, SC-01)
Radiotherapy 01 (UR-01, Spon. Foreign-02)
Surgery 10[UR-05, OBC-03, SC-01, ST-01 &Spon/Foreign-01]
Anatomy 01 (SC-01 7 spon/Foreign-03)
Biochemistry 02 ( UR-01, OBC-01, SC-01, Spon/Foreign-03)
Biophysics 13 (UR-07, OBC-03, Sc-02, ST-01, spon/ Foreign-03)
Forensic Medicine 02 ( UR-02, spon./ foreign-03)
Lab Medicine 00 (spon./ Foreign-03)
Microbiology 01 ( UR-01, Spon/foreiogn-03)
Pathology 06 (UR- 03, OBC- 01, ST-01)
Pharmacology 05 (UR-01, OBC-02, ST-01, SC-01, Spon/ foreign-03)
Physiology 02 (UR-02, Spon/foreign-03)


For MDS courses the number of seats are as follows:

1, Conservative Dentistry- Total Seats -06 (UR-01, OBC-01)

2. Orthodontics- Total Seats 01 ( UR- 01, ST-01)

3. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery- Total Seats 01 (OBC-01)

4. Prosthodontics- Total Seats- 01 9OBC-01, Spon/Foreign-01)

To be eligible to appear for the entrance the candidate must possess MBBS degree for MD/ MS and BDS degree for MDS course of a University redcognised by the Medical Council of India and must have completed the required period of 12 minths compulsory rotating Internship/ Practical training on or before 30th January, 2016. (As per the DCI endorsement no.DE-130-2011/B-4978, dated-13.12.2011.) Those who complete their internship after 30thJanuary , 2016 are not eligible for Registration in this examination.

The candidates must have obtained a minimum of the following marks in all the MBBS/ BDS professional examinations:

  • For all the candidates including the OBS Category 55% marks in the aggregate.
  • For SC/St Categories 50% marks in the aggregate.



  • Applicants should indicate his/her choice of city of examination at the time of filling the examination form; the city chosen is subject to the payment of application fee.
  • The city of examination will be allotted on the first come first serve basis.
  • The centre of examination once chosen will not be changed and any request in this regard will not be entertained. It is advisable for candidates to fill the city of examination with utmost care.


  • Selection will be done entirely on the basis of merit in the entrance examination and the choice of subject will be allotted only after personal counselling.
  • The entrance test for MD/MS will consist of one paper of 180 minutes containing 200 objective type questions covering all the subjects taught at the MBBS level.
  • The entrance test for MDS will consist of one paper of 90 minutes containing 90 objective type questions covering all the subjects taught at the BDS level.
  • There is a penalty of 1/3 negative marks of every wrong answer.

M.Ch/ DM Course

Number of seats:

Neuro Surgery-03

Infectious Diseases-03


The candidate must possess MBBS degree and should have completed the required period of one year compulsory internship. He/ She must have obtained at least 55 % marks in the aggregate in all the MBBS.


The duration of the course is a period of minimum 6 years for those registering after the MBBS degree and completion of one year’s compulsory Internship, The candidate will spend first six months in the super specialities opted for.


It is the same as for MD/MS courses.


  • Date of uploading Prospectus and Registration of Online Application through Web portal-19-02-2016
  • Last Date For Registration of Online application-09-03-2016


DM/M.Ch Courses

  • Status of Application and rejected application -17-03-2016
  • Last date for submission of required documents for Regularization of Rejected Application NO.-21-03-2016,. No correspondence will be entertained after 21-03-2016
  • Written Test through online (CBT) mode-02-04-2016.
  • Expected date of declaration of result-08-04-2016
  • Departmental Assessment-21-04-2016 and 22-04-2016
  • Final Result-26-04-2016



IGIDR invites application for admission to post graduate courses

education news

The Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR), Mumbai has announced admission to its post graduate courses. The institute has invited applications from interested and eligible candidates for admission to its programme of Master of Science (M.Sc) in Economics, Master of Philosophy (M.Phil) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) for the coming academic session.

The duration of the course will be two years. M.Phil./Ph.D. students will receive a monthly stipend of Rs. 17,000 for the first two years.

The educational qualification required for admission to various programmes is as follows:

M.Sc Economics: Those interested must possess a degree in BA/ BSc. In Economics/ B.Com/ B.Stat/ B.Sc (Physics or Mathematics)/ B.Tech/ B.E with at least a second division for Economics discipline and first division for other disciplines. He/ she should have studied mathematics at the higher secondary or higher level.

M.Phil/ Ph.D: Those interested in applying for this programme must possess a degree in MA/ MSc. In Economics/ M.Stat/ M.Sc (Physics or Mathematics or Environmental Science or Operations Research) / MBA/ M.Tech/ M.E/ B.Tech/ B.E with at least 55 per cent aggregate marks for Economics discipline. He / she should have mathematics at the higher secondary or higher level.

For selection an online test and an interview will be held by the institute.

To apply the candidates are required to visit the official website. www.igidr.ac.in

Important Dates

The last date for applying online is March 31.

Online test will be conducted on April 24.

Syllabus of UPSC NDA (1) 2016: Find here

NDA Syllabus 2016

The syllabus of NDA for 2016 has been released by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). NDA exam is conducted for those candidates who want to join the Army, Navy and Air Force Wing of NDA. The examination is conducted twice every year. To be able to crack this exam the candidate must prepare properly according to the latest syllabus and prescribed format of question paper as mentioned below:

Mathematics 2 hours, 30 minutes 300
General Ability 2 hours 30 minutes 600
Total 900
SSB Interview 900


The question paper will be objective type. Mathematics and General Ability question paper will be set in both Hindi / English.

The Syllabus for NDA 2016 is as follows:

PAPER I (Mathematics)


  • Concept of the set
  • Operations onsets
  • Venn Diagrams. De Morgan Laws
  • Cartesian Product Relation
  • Equivalence Relation
  • Representation Of Real Numbers on a Line
  • Complex numbers-Basic Properties
  • Modulus Argument
  • Cube Roots of Unity
  • Binary System of Numbers
  • Conversion of a Number in Decimal System to Binary System and vice versa
  • Arithmetic
  • Geometric and Harmonic Progressions
  • Quadratic equations with Real coefficients
  • Solution of Linear equations of two variables by graphs
  • Permutation and Combination
  • Binomial theorem and its application
  • Logarithms and their application




  • Types of Matrices
  • Operations on Matrices
  • Determinant of a Matrix
  • Basic properties of Determinants
  • Adjoint and Inverse of a square matrix
  • Applications- Solution of a system of linear equations in two or three unknowns by Cramer’s rule and by Matrix Method


  • Angles and their measures in degrees and in radians
  • Trignometrical ratios
  • Trignometrical identities Sum and difference formulae
  • Multiple and Sub-multiple angles
  • Inverse trigonometric functions
  • Applications- Height and distance
  • Properties of triangles


  • Rectangular Cartesian Coordinate System
  • Distance formula
  • Equation of a line in various forms
  • Angle between two lines
  • Distance of a point from a line
  • Equation of a circle in a standard and in general form
  • Standard forms of parabola
  • Ellipse and hyperbola
  • Eccentricity and axis of a conic




  • Concept of a real valued function- domain
  • Range and graph of a function
  • Composite functions
  • Derivative of function at a point
  • Derivatives of a sum
  • Product and quotient of functions
  • Derivative of a function with respect of another function
  • Derivative of a composite function
  • Second order derivatives
  • Increasing and decreasing functions
  • Applications of derivatives in problems of maxima and minima


  • Integration as inverse of differentiation
  • Integration by substitution and by parts
  • Standard integrals involving algebraic expressions
  • Trigonometric
  • Exponential and hyperbolic functions
  • General and Particular solution of a differential equation


  • Vectors in two and three dimensions
  • Magnitude and direction of a vector
  • Unit and null vectors addition of vectors
  • Scalar multiplication of vector


  • Statistics: Classification of data
  • Frequency distribution
  • Cumulative frequency distribution-examples
  • Graphical representation-Histogram
  • Pie Chart
  • Frequency Polygon-examples
  • Measures of Central tendency- mean Median and Mode
  • Variance and standard deviation-determination and comparison
  • Correlation and regression


  • Random experiment
  • Outcomes and associated sample space
  • Events
  • Mutually exclusive and exhaustive events
  • Impossible and certain events
  • Union and Intersection of events
  • Complementary
  • Elementary and composite events
  • Conditional probability
  • Bayes’ theorem-simple problems
  • Random variable as function on a sample space
  • Binomial distribution
  • Examples of random experiments giving rise to Binomial distribution

PAPER II (General Ability Test)

Part A- English

  • Grammar and usage
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension and cohesion in extended text to test the candidate’s proficiency in English


  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • General Science
  • Social Studies
  • Geography
  • Current Affairs

Section A : Physics

  • Physical Properties
  • Mass
  • Weight
  • Volume
  • Density
  • Specific Gravity
  • Principles of Archimedes
  • Pressure of Barometer
  • Motion of objects
  • Velocity and Acceleration
  • Newton’s Laws of Motion
  • Force and Momentum
  • Parallelogram of Forces
  • Stability and Equilibrium of bodies
  • Gravitation
  • Elementary ideas of Work
  • Power and energy
  • Effects of heat
  • Measurement of temperature and heat
  • Change of state and latent heat
  • Modes of transference of heat
  • Sound waves and their properties
  • Simple musical instruments
  • Rectilinear propagation of light
  • Reflection and Refraction
  • Spherical mirrors and Lenses
  • Human Eye
  • Natural and Artificial Magnets
  • Properties of a Magnet
  • Earth as a Magnet
  • Static and Current Electricity
  • Conductors and Non-conductors
  • Ohm’s Law Simple Electrical Circuits
  • Heating
  • Lighting and Magnetic effects of Current
  • Measurement of Electrical Power
  • Primary and Secondary Cells
  • Use of X-rays

Section B: Chemistry

  • Physical and Chemical changes
  • Elements Mixtures and Compounds Symbols Formulae
  • Simple Chemical Equations Law of Chemical Combination (excluding problems)
  • Properties of Air and Water
  • Preparation of Properties of Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen and Carbon dioxide Oxidation and Reduction
  • Acids bases and salts
  • Carbon-different forms
  • Fertilizers-Natural and Artificial
  • Material used in the preparation of substances like soap Glass Ink Paper, Cement, Paints, Safety Matches and Gun Powder
  • Elementary ideas about the structure of Atom, Atomic Equivalent and Molecular Weights Valency

Section C: General Science

  • Difference between the living and non-living
  • Basis of Life-Cells Protoplasm’s and Tissues
  • Growth and Reproduction in Plants and Animals
  • Elementary Knowledge of human body and its important organs
  • Common Epidemics their causes and prevention
  • Food-Source of Energy for man, Constituents of Balanced diet
  • The Solar System- Meteors and Comets Eclipses
  • Achievements of Eminent Scientists

Section D: History of Freedom Movement etc.

  • Broad survey of Indian History with emphasis on Culture and Civilisation
  • Freedom Movement in India
  • Elementary study of Indian Constitution and Administration
  • Elementary knowledge of Five Year Plans of India
  • Panchayati Raj Co-operatives and Community Development
  • BhoodanSarvodaya National integration and Welfare State Basic Teachings of Mahatma Gandhi
  • Forces shaping the modern world
  • Renaissance Exploration and Discovery
  • War of American Independence
  • French Revolution, Industrial Revolution and Russian Revolution
  • Impact of science and technology on society
  • Concept of one World United Nations Panchsheel Democracy
  • Socialism and Communism
  • Role of India in the present world

Section E: Geography

  • Earth its shape and size
  • Latitudes and Longitudes: Concept of Time
  • International Date Line
  • Movement of Earth and their Effects
  • Origin of Earth
  • Rocks and their Classification
  • Weathering
  • Mechanical and Chemical earthquakes and volcanoes
  • Ocean Currents and Tides
  • Atmosphere and its Composition
  • Temperature and Atmospheric Pressure: Planetary winds, Cyclones and anti- Cyclones
  • Humidity
  • Condensation and Precipitation
  • Types of Climate
  • Major natural regions of the Earth
  • Regional geography of India
  • Climate Natural Vegetation
  • Mineral and Power Resources
  • Location and Distribution of Industrial and Agricultural activities
  • Important Sea Ports and Main Sea land and Air routes of India
  • Main items of imports and exports of India


Section F: Current Events

  • Knowledge of Important events that have happened in India in recent years.
  • Current important World events
  • Prominent Personalities-both Indian and International including those connected with cultural activities and sports


For any further details please refer to the official website.



Pre-exam important details for CBSE class 10 and 12 Boards

CBSE Exam Details

CBSE Class 10 and 12 board exam are all set to begin from March 1. The number of candidates who have applied for the exams this year is far greater as compared to previous year. A total of 13, 73,853 candidates had applied for Class 10 exam last year, out of which81,79,41 were boys and 55,59,12 were girls. This year a total of 14,99,122 candidates have applied, out of which 89,26,85 are boys and 60,64,37 are girls. For Class 12 exam, a total of 10, 40,368 candidates had applied last year, out of which 607,38,3 were boys and 43,29,85 were girls. This year a total of 14, 99,122 candidates have applied of which 44,66,41 are girls and 621,25,9 are boys.

User friendly web based features under E-CBSE have been launched for Class 10 and 12 examinations where the following facilities can be availed of:

  • The schools can generate roll numbers for the Main exam and make corrections in particulars. Photos can also be uploaded using the existing Id and passwords except for change of subject.
  • The schools can also upload internal subject assessment grades of Class 12. Through this facility the schools will save time, accuracy and will also facilitate timely compilation of results.
  • The schools can also download admit cards, attendance sheets, list of candidates.
  • Intimation letters for private candidates appearing in Class 10 and 12 examination can also be downloaded.
  • The examiners appointed for practical exams will be able to convey their consent online to the CBSE regional office in Dehradun, Ajmer, Patna and Bhubaneshwar.
  • Students who want to remain in the CBSE system after Class 10, for supply of question papers and marking scheme will be provided by the board and SA-II will be conducted by the schools.
  • Problem Solving Assessment (PSA) has been discontinued with effect from 2015-2016 session. The schools will conduct FA4 in place of PSA and will upload the scores.
  • Results of the Class 10 and 12 Boards will be declared in May/June


IITs to hold entrance tests abroad for foreign students.

IIT Kerala begins its first Academic session

To attract foreign students, IITs will hold entrance tests in eight countries including Afghanistan, Bangladesh , Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Singapore and Dubai,(all SAARC countries) to select students for their undergraduate and postgraduate courses.

Till now, IITs have held entrance tests abroad to admit Indian nationals. It is for the first time that it has decided to admit foreign students through tests abroad. The plan is aimed to come into operation from the JEE/GATE exams to be held in 2017.

The plan aims to select students through a common entrance exam, to be administered by the IIT with the help of Indian missions in these countries.

Additional seats would be made available for foreign students and hence those available to Indian students will remain the same.

The fee structure for foreign students would be different from Indian students; they will have to pay more money as subsidised fee facility availed by Indian students will not be applicable to them.

To facilitate these foreign students, the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) will even consider giving them research visa for the duration of the entire programme instead of one year at a time.

Though the test is to be conducted in 2017, but the outreach programme for the exercise would begin from August this year and would be conducted in all these eight countries. IIT Mumbai has been asked to collect necessary information material for the outreach. The information would include the details of tests, the courses and FAQs. A web portal might also be created for this purpose.

The Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) would be the nodal agency on behalf of the MEA for these tests. The government is very interested on more foreign students studying in IITs as it is believed to enhance their international ranking academically.

UPSC releases e-summon letters


The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) has issued e-summon letters for Civil Services (Main) examination, 2015. Those candidates who have qualified for the Personality Test are advised by the UPSC to download their e-summon letters and their attachments as would be required for the Personality Test.

To download the e-summon letter, candidates should follow the following steps:

  • visit the official website of the UPSC i.e. www.upsc.gov.in
  • Click on the link, e-summon Letter-Civil Services (Main) Examination, 2015’
  • After that, click on to, ‘To download here’
  • Candidates will be required to enter their roll number to have an access to their e-summon Letter.
  • The Letter will be displayed on the screen.

The candidates are advised to take out a print out for future reference.

Candidates must keep in mind that the e-summon Letters will not be issued by post.

All those candidates who have qualified and are unable to download their e-summon letter from the website at least five days before the commencement of the Personality Test are advised to contact the commission office on the following contact numbers- 011-23385271, 011-23381125.

The date of the Personality Test is scheduled to be March 8 and it will be conducted at Dholpur House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi-110069.

For any further query, candidates should visit the official website.

UPSC declares results of Civil Services (Main) Exams 2015


The UPSC has declared the results of Civil Services (Main) Examination, 2015.

To check the results the candidates need to follow the following:

  • Go to the official website.
  • Click on the link, ‘Written Result- Civil Services (Main) Examination -2015
    After clicking the above link the result will be displayed on the screen. The candidates are advised to take out a printout for future reference. Those who have not qualified can find their mark sheets within 15 days from the date of declaration of final result( after conducting Personality Test) and will be available for a period of three months.

The Civil Services (Main) Examination, 2015 were held by the Union Public Service Commission from December 18 to December 23, 2015. The result will qualify candidates for the Personality Test for selection to the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Foreign Service, Indian Police Service and other Central Services ( Group A and Group B).

There would be Personality Test for the qualified candidates on March 8. Personality Tests will be held in the office of the Union Public Service Commission at Dholpur House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi-110069.

The detailed programme for the Personality Test will be uploaded on the official website http:www.upsc.gov.in

The e-summon letter’s first batch will be made available on the UPSC’s website http://www.upsc.gov. Latest by April 18. Subsequently the second and third batches of the e-summon letters will be uploaded .

Those who have qualified and are unable to download their e-summon letters from the UPSC’s website at least 5 days before the commencement of the said Personality Test/ Interview should contact the office of the Commission through phone No. 011-23385271, 011-23098543, 011-23381125 or Fax No. 011-23387310, 011-23384472.

It is to be noted by the candidates that no paper summon letters will be issued for the Personality Test/ Interview by the UPSC.

AFCAT Feb 2016: Expected cut off Marks

IAF (Indian Air Force) has very recently conducted AFCAT (Air Force Common Admission Test) on 21st February 2016.This test is conducted to selected the qualified and deserving candidates for the flying, ground and technical posts of Indian Airforce. Candidates who clear this AFCAT Exam 1 are eligible for the next level called interview. But in order to clear AFCAT Exam 1, candidates are required to meet the AFCAT EKT cut off Marks.

AFCAT 1 2016 answer sheet

AFCAT Exam is conducted every year to recruit the aspiring candidates for different posts in different branches of Indian Air Force. For this reason AFCAT is one of the most aspiring and sought after exam for the aspirants. The examination is held two times in a year. This year a big lot of candidates appeared for the exam.

Candidates can download their Air Force Common Admission Test I Ans Key from the official web site: www.careerairforce.nic.in. Steps to download the AFCAT Answer Key 2016 are given below:

AFCAT 1 Ans Key:


  1. Log on to www.careerairforce.nic.in
  2. Choose and click on the link ‘AFCAT Answer Key 2016’
  3. Select your question paper set from A, B, C, D
  4. The answer key is available in pdf format.
  5. Download your answer key
  6. Save and match the answers

Those candidates who are able to clear this test and score safe marks are likely to get selected. Visit the official web portal: www.careerairforce.nic.in


On the estimate and evaluation of previous years AFCAT Exam results, there is an estimated set of cut off for this year. Those candidates whose marks are above the cut off, they are said to have qualified the exam.


Year wise AFCAT 1 Cut off


Year AFCAT 1 cut off
2012 85
2013 135
2014 144
2015 128
2016 (Expected) 126/300 & EKT 55/150



Check and find out right answers. Find out if you likely to achieve desirable marks required to clear the exam and move to next level.


All the Best!!


The new AFCAT Guide with 8 past papers (2011 - 2015) 2nd EditionAFCAT Topic-wise Solved Papers (2011-15) with 5 Practice Sets

The lost Treasure of the Developed Nations

A system where organisms interact with each other and their environment in a given unit of area and time is an ecosystem. Hence, a balanced ecosystem is indispensable for either a biotic or abiotic organism to thrive effortlessly. A little here and there in this system might prove detrimental to the existence of any organism. Therefore, it becomes important that we keep a tab on our environment and make sure nothing exceeds the other. But in our efforts to have a balanced environment, how far are we able to live up to the expectations ? Several efforts have been made by countries across the world in order to make the ecosystem environment-friendly. Though the developing countries are taking small steps striving towards a healthy ecosystem, developed countries on the other hand have refused to budge from their stand.

There have been numerous protocols and agreements on climate change for the industrialized countries as well as the developing countries. For example, Kyoto Protocol, Montreal Agreement, Copenhagen Summit etc. This throws light on the fact that countries across the world have been able to comprehend that there is a need to undergo emission cuts in order to make environment clean and green. However, climate summits over the years show that the efforts made by the developed countries when compared to the developing countries are paltry. This leads us to a question- why are developed countries shying away from making a commitment worth their economic level ? It is not that they are devoid of funds. Neither do they have an economy which cannot make a decent effort towards sustenance nor are they bogged down by pressure.

As per the Kyoto Protocol, 1997, the developed countries have been asked to abbreviate their emission levels of greenhouse gases to targets, mainly set below their 1990 levels. Meanwhile, the developing countries are not required to cut down emission levels unless developed countries furnish enough funding and technology. Unfortunately, this protocol is not based on the per capita concept. This concept is requisite as about 20 per cent of total population of the world residing in the developed nations is accountable for making 75 per cent of the total greenhouse gases emissions and that too to fulfil their luxury-based needs.

The subsequent agreements have also hinted at the fact again and again that how important it is for the developed countries to undergo emission cuts. They are a major contributor to the rising greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. A developing country on the other hand, is dependent on the developed country for funds and technology that may foster them to curb their emission cuts as well. Till date, there has not been a substantial effort made by the developed nations towards emission cuts.

As per a new data analysis by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), the developed countries have committed to cut greenhouse gas emissions by a mere three per cent from 2011 to 2020.This is less than a third of the emission cuts the rich countries have achieved between 1990 to 2011.

The review shows that the countries have collectively committed themselves to a reduction of only 13-19 per cent by the 1990 levels; which falls short of the 25-40 per cent reduction expected of the developed countries so as to keep temperatures from rising more than two degrees above the pre-industrial era- a tipping point that leads to dangerous climate change consequences. It is likely that developed countries will only achieve the lower limit. They have predicted their taking the higher range of cuts on developing countries setting targets for themselves, the chances of which are almost nil.

It is difficult to analyze how much of the emission reduction actions pledged by the developed countries will be executed by them in reality as many have not explained or clarified their dependence on offsets-buying credits for work one to cut emissions in the developing world. With the carbon space being limited and almost two-thirds occupied by the developed world, the low commitments of the rich world at present promise to push the developing world to take on a higher level of reduction post-2020.

So, can we conclude that developed countries are damaging the ecosystem ? It is tough to answer this question. Though every country in the world is responsible for the damage caused to the ecosystem, developed countries with their minimal efforts to raise their emission cut levels are only adding fuel to the fire. Hence, a pertinent effort is required by the developed nations along with the developing nations to thwart the evils of environmental damage.


This Article is taken from Disha’s The Knowledge Book.

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 THE MEGA YEARBOOK 2016 - Current Affairs & General Knowledge for Competitive ExamsThe Knowledge Book 2015 for IAS Prelims (CSAT) & Mains (English, Essays, General

CBSE CTET Exam Tomorrow on February 21, 2016


The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is conducting the Central Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET) on February 21. The exam will be conducted in two sessions given as follows:

Paper 1: From 2 pm to 4:30 pm

Paper 2: From 9:30 am 12 pm

The admit cards are available on the official website i.e. ctet.nic.in

To download the admit card, candidates should follow the steps as follows:

  • Visit the official site
  • Click on the link, ‘CTET February Admit Card
  • Enter registration number and date of birth

After submitting the above details, the admit cards will be displayed on the screen. The candidate must take a print-out for future reference.

Candidates must carry the admit card to the examination centre, otherwise they will not be allowed to sit for the exam.

Paper I will have 150 multiple choice questions based on Child Development and Pedagogy, Language I (compulsory), Language II ( compulsory), Mathematics and Environment Studies. It will carry a total of 150 marks.

Paper II will have 150 multiple choice questions based on Child Development and Pedagogy (compulsory), Language I (compulsory), Language II( compulsory), Mathematics and Science (for Mathematics and Science Teacher ), Social Studies/ Social Science (for Social Studies/ Science Teacher) carrying a total of 150 marks.

For further details candidates are required to refer to the official website.

SSC Sub Inspector Exam 2016: Tips, Preparation Strategy and study material

Preparation Tips

Staff selection Commission conducts SSC Sub – Inspector Examination every year to recruit for the post of Sub-Inspector in Delhi Police, Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) and Assistant Sub-Inspector in Central Industrial Security Force (CISF).

The date of examination for the SSC SI 2016 Exam is 20 March 2016 for Paper- I and 05 June 2016 for Paper- II.

Now when the exams are not far and the candidates are preparing hard to appear for the exam, disha brings support to the aspirants by providing best study material.

For candidates, its very important to know their strengths and weaknesses and plan their preparatory schedule accordingly.

You must be familiar with the syllabus, exam pattern, important topics and marks. It would greatly help you in making the study schedule and improving the attempts in examination.

Practice hard – You must remember that only learning/ cramming chapters will not result into success. You need to achieve high score in the exam for which high practice is recommended. Practice till you achieve perfection in a particular chapter. If you practice and understand instead of cramming, you would be able to crack the questions at ease.

In order to practice hard,it is required for all the aspirants to catch hold of right study and practice material to work in a direction to the achievement of their specified goal.

Disha Publication brings free study material for all the students preparing for SSC SI exam 2016.

Click on the following Image to access FREE best study material for SSC SI exam 2016:

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Strike a balance between 12 class Board and IIT JEE Preparation

Balance Between JEE & Board Exam

Candidates are mostly found perplexed s to what to give more importance to. It becomes difficult to balance board and JEE Preparation. This thought leaves them confused and stressed.

Are you finding it difficult to manage your 12th Class board exam preparation along with JEE?

Here are some of the interventions by our experts which will help you to identify how and what to give importance to.

  • It is important to stay positive and focused.
  • Avoid cramming. While preparing for JEE one must make it clear to oneself that simply mugging up won’t help pass this highly competitive exam.
  • It is crucial to understand the concepts and learn to apply it to the problems. This exam tests candidate’s aptitude and not bookish knowledge.
  • Students can easily establish an equilibrium between their JEE preparation and personal life, only if they are focused and content.
  • Failure to do justice to both exams is one of the fears that make students psychologically weaker. Thoughts of failure can lead to loss of concentration and worse, depression. To do away this problem
  • Another way to balance between boards and JEE test preparation is through IIT JEE Study Plan.
  • Create a study schedule to learn in an efficient manner. Invest time on all three subjects, and give more time to important topics.
  • Additionally, take JEE mock tests to know your preparation level. The sample tests help you know where you stand just before the exam.
  • Inability to balance between the exams and JEE burden results in depression and frustration. Hence, balancing both the preparations is really important for the mental of the students.

To access FREE study material for the preparation of 12th class board exams and JEE exam, click on the links given below:

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India’s first fully solar energy powered institute at Puducherry

India’s first fully solar energy powered institute

Sri Aurobindo International Centre for Education in Puducherry is the first institute to introduce solar power fully in its institute. Solar energy is believed to be the most crucial source of renewable energy.

The institute will be generating three times the electricity it consumes through solar power plants installed on the roofs of the dining room, primary school, library and high school in the campus.

It has been 2 years that the institute has been self-reliant in energy and has produced 15KW of energy. Later 30 KW was added in 2015 to power the ashram.

They are now saving up to Rs. 10,000 per month as a result of this. They hope to recover the investment made on the solar panels in a span of ten years.

In 1943 the school was set up by MirraAlfasa, called The Mother, the spiritual collaborator of Sri Aurobindo, and got its present name in 1959. The school is believed to be producing 45 KW energy from its solar plant; thrice its requirement. The campus has most of rooftops fitted with solar panels to add to its grid.

The entire campus are net energy positive, the exception being the ashram’s dining room.

The school has been addressing various social and economic issues; latest being addressing the energy resource problem in India.

February 29: Last date for registering at VITEEE 2016


The Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) had invited applications for admission to various B.Tech programmes for the academic session 2016-17. The last date to apply is February 29, 2016.

Eligibility criteria:

The interested candidates should have completed Class XII with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics as compulsory subjects. The aggregate marks in the subjects Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics or Biology (PCM/PCB) in class XII should be at least 60 per cent for general candidates and 50 per cent for candidates belonging to SC/ST and North Eastern States.

The Application forms are available online and offline from November 27 on its website. All the correspondence including the booking of the centre and issuing of e-admit card will be done via email only.

For online application the candidates are required to keep a soft copy of a recently taken photograph with 10 kb-300 kb( dimensions-3.5*4.5 cm) and signature of the candidate with 10 kb-300 kb (dimensions 6 cm (width)*2cm(height) in JPG/JPEG format ready.

The candidates are required to pay an online fee of 960/- via internet banking.

For applying offline the applications are available in selected head post offices at a payment of 990/- via Demand Draft.

The VITEEE 2016 will be a computer based test; the time duration would be 2 hours and 30 minutes. The test would be objective based and will be segregated as follows:

PART I: Physics

PART II: Chemistry

PART III: Mathematics/ Biology

PART IV: English

Part I, II and III will consist of 40 questions, Part IV will have 5 questions. There is no penalty for wrong answers.

The exam will be held from April 6 to April 17 in three sessions. The timings for each session are :

Session I: 9 am to 11:30 am

Session II: 12:30 pm -3 pm

Session II: 4 pm

To access free study material for engineering entrance exam click on given image.

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Recruitment Examinations in 2016

Large number of students prepare for various competitive exams in order to bag government or banking sector jobs. However, these competitive examinations have a criteria that allows only hard working, sharp, efficient and deserving candidates to be a part of the distinctive organizations. One needs to be fully prepared for these exams. In order to do that one should be fully accustomed with the complete resources. Disha Publication bring you complete study material for all the exams taking place in year 2016.

Examinations in 2016 are:


The job profile requires general banking and banking administration skills, good communication skills to calmly resolve conflicts, supervision of clerical work, and increasing bank business with better services.

Expected date of examination: October16, 2016 (preliminary) and November20, 2016 (Mains)

The State Bank of India is a huge bank with branches in remote corners of the country and caters to every banking requirement. Bigger roles and responsibilities also give rise to bigger learning opportunities here.

The job profile will involve general banking tasks, administrative responsibilities, along with a marketing focus, which is prominent in SBI.

Expected date of notification: April 2016

Expected date of examination: June 2016 (preliminary) and August 2016 (Mains)

Date of notification and exam: Not yet declared


The Staff Selection Commission conducts Combined Graduate Level Examination (SSC CGL) to fill vacancies at different Central Civil posts, and different ministries as well. The CGL exam is conducted for group B and C cadre posts. The vacancies likely to come up this year along with their job profiles are given below:

• Examiner, Assistant CSS,Preventive Officer, Income Tax Inspector, Central Excise Inspector, Assistant in MEA & Assistant, Assistant Enforcement Officer, Sub-Inspector in CBI, Inspector of Posts, Auditor.

• Expected date of notification: February 2016

Expected date of examination: May 2016(Tier 1) and August 2016 (Tier 2)


The job of an Assistant Administrative Officer (AAO) is considered a very respectable one. Administration, Development and Accounts areas can be selected from, for the AAO post.

The job profile involves purchasing and maintaining various financial, administrative and personal services, carrying out work and purchase inquiries, and preparing and scrutinizing the bills for payment.

Date of examination: March 5, 6 &13, 2016.

UPSC Civil Services Examination

Civil Servants are the main personnel behind major government decisions. Union and the State Secretariats as well as the district administrations throughout the country are headed by Civil Service Officers

Civil Service officers are general managers who cater to a wide range of duties such as maintaining law and order, collecting taxes, developmental work within State and Central jurisdiction, implementing social welfare activities, etc.

Expected date of examination: August 2016


Every year, RRB carries out recruitments at a vast number of posts. The best opportunity for graduates would be the RRB Non Technical Recruitment 2016.
Date of examination: March- May, 2016

The Teacher Eligibility Test recruitment is conducted by both, Central and State governments, done for all levels of education in government schools that is, upper, middle as well as lower levels of education.

Candidates should have the minimum of a graduate degree in any discipline from a recognised university. Post graduation degrees and doctorates will be an added advantage to your profile.
Date of exam for CTET: Feb12, 2016

Prepare well and be fully equipped with the learning material as per the requirement of the exam.
Disha Publication provides for the best learning material as per the latest syllabus of the exam Not only that , we also provide for the free download material which includes study material like concept notes, solved previous question papers, free mock test and sample papers. To access the same , click on the link given below:

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Click Below to access Top 50 News of Fortnight News box for competitive exams

Important Dates for PIM-MAT 2016

PIM MAT 2016

The University of Rajasthan, Rajasthan, and Jaipur has announced the exam dates for Podar Institute of Management –Management Aptitude (PIM-MAT). The exam for admission to Master of Business (MBA), Executive MBA and MBA in Service Management programmes offered at R.A Podar Institute of Management is supposed to be held on March 27.

The eligibility criteria for various programmes offered by the institute are as follows:

  • For MBA interested candidates must be graduates (10+2+3) from any discipline or equivalent from any university recognised by the University Of University Of Rajasthan, Jaipur with at least 50 per cent marks (for SC/ST/ OBC-45 per cent) without any approximation.
  • For Executive MBA those interested must have completed graduate/post –graduation from a university recognised by the University of Rajasthan. The minimum percentage for eligibility is 48 per cent or second division at graduation for general category candidates. For SC/ST/OBC candidates, it is 43 per cent without any approximation.

Paper Pattern

  • The test will be for two hours. The paper will consist of objective type questions. There will be a total of 200 questions to be answered. The questions will be multiple choice questions with four alternatives each.
  • For every three wrong answers one mark will be deducted.

Those interested can apply at the official website

Important dates

  • Last date for submission of online application form: March 18
  • Date of PIM-MAT exam: March 27
  • Date of Availability of answer key: March 28
  • Date of Declaration of result: April 7

JK Lakshmipat University starts admission process for engineering programmes

education news

The JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur has commenced admissions to its various engineering programmes. Applications are invited from candidates who are interested and also eligible to apply for its four year programme of Bachelor of Technology (B. Tech), two year Master of Technology (M.Tech), Five year dual degree programmes-B.Tech plusto M.tech and B.Tech plus MBA (Master of Business Administration), and three B.Tech lateral entry programmes offered in various disciplines for the academic session commencing in 2016.

The eligibility criteria for various programmes offered by the university are:

  • The educational qualification required for those aspiring for B.Tech/ B.Tech plus M.Tech/ B.Tech plus MBA is XII pass with at least 50 per cent aggregate (45 per cent for SC/ST candidates) and minimum 50 per cent marks or equivalent in Physics, Mathematics and any one of the four optional course (Biology, Bio-technology, Chemistry, Computer Science) from a recognised central/ state board/ university examination in India or in any foreign country recognised as equivalent to Class 12 system by the Association of Indian Universities(AIU).

Those appearing in the final examination of Class 12 are also eligible to apply.

• For B.Tech lateral entry the candidates must hold a Diploma (three year polytechnic programme by a recognised institute) in any programme of Engineering (offered by JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur) with a minimum of 45 per cent marks (45 per cent for SC/ ST candidates) in aggregate.
• For M.Tech the candidates must possess a graduation degree B.E/ B.Tech with at least 55 per cent of 6.25 CGPA in 10.0 point scale (50 per cent marks or 5.75 CGPA in case of SC/ST candidates) from a recognised university.
• Foreign Nationals (FN)/ Persons of India Origin (PIO)/Non-Resident Indian (NRI), can be considered for admission on the basis of their Bachelor’s degree in Engineering/ Technology or equivalent examination/their performance in GRE (Graduate Record Examination).

The admission for this course will be made on the basis of JEE/GATE scores.

Important Dates for various programmes are as follows:

B.Tech/ B.Tech plus M.Tech/ B.Tech plus MBA programmes.

  • The last date for submission of application form is May 31.
  • Admission and counselling :from June 6 to 11


  • The last for submission of application form is May 31
  • Admission and counselling will take place on June 10

B.Tech Lateral Entry programmes

  • The last date for submission of application form of June 15
  • Admission and counselling will take place on June 20

For any queries please visit the official website.

One Time Correction Opportunity Announced By CBSE Aipmt 2016

The Central Board of Secondary Education has released notification regarding All India Pre-Medical/Pre-Dental Test (AIPMT). CBSE has provided one time correction opportunity to the candidates only in those categories of data which may affect the merit/result.

Correction is being allowed in the following categories for online application:

  • Date of birth, State Codes of Eligibility, Gender, Category and Disability Status
  • Dedicated time for making the corrections is from February 15 at 10 am to February 20 at 11:59 pm

It is to be noticed clearly that candidates are not allowed to make correction in any other data as this will not make any difference to the candidature. Candidates must be very careful while making corrections as they will not be given any second time opportunity to make any further corrections. It is advisable to candidates to take a print-out for future reference. Candidates are advised to submit the fee through debit/credit or net banking in case any additional fee is payable.

Important dates to be noted:

  • Download of admit cards: April 1
  • Date of AIPMT: May 1
  • Display of OMR sheet: Between May 19 to May 23 (For any three days)
  • Display of answer key: May 24 to May 26
  • Declaration of results: June 5 (Tentative)


For More Study Material Consult following books:


28 Years CBSE-AIPMT Topic wise Solved Papers Biology (1988 - 2015) Hindi 10th Edition28 Years CBSE-AIPMT Topic wise Solved Papers Chemistry (1988 - 2015) Hindi 10th28 Years CBSE-AIPMT Topic wise Solved Papers Physics (1988 - 2015) Hindi 10th Edition

UPSC CDS Aspirants Gear Up For Tomorrow

The UPSC will be conducting the Combined Defence Services ( CDS) I the exam will be held on February 14.

CDS is conducted by the UPSC at the national level for the Indian military Academy , Naval Academy, and Officers’ Academy. it is conducted two times in a year.

The exam will be an objective type.

Exam for Indian Military Academy, Naval Academy and Air Force Academy will have questions based on subjects like General Knowledge, English and Mathematics ( elementary level). The duration for each section is two hours carrying 100 marks, making it 300 in total.

For Officers Training Academy the written test will be based on Elementary Mathematics, and General Knowledge. Each section will carry 100 marks and will be for 2 hours.

For further details candidates are required to visit the official website.

Notification of SSC for CGL Exam

Education News

The Staff Selection Commission has released notification for the exam dates for the Combined Graduate Level (CGL). According to the schedule, the CGL Tier 1 is slated to be held on May 8 and May 22, 2016. The CGL Exam Tier 2 shall be held on August 13 and August 14, 2016.

The details according to the notified official SSC calendar are as follows:

Date of release of detailed advertisement: February 13

Closing date: March 14

Date of the exam: May 8 and May 22.

CGL Tier 2:

Date of release of detailed advertisement: To be notified

Closing date: To be notified later

Date of Exam: August 13 and August 14, 2016

The CGL exam is conducted by the Commission to provide employment to candidates at several posts.

The entire exam calendar for the session of January 2016-17 has been published by the Staff Selection Commission (SSC). To check the same visit the official website.

Important dates for JEE Advanced 2016 : Check out here

JNU Admission Notification

The detailed notification of the Joint Entrance Examination has been released.

Seven Zonal IITs will conduct the Joint Entrance Examination Advanced 2016 under the guidance of Joint Admission Board (JAB) 2016. Admission to the Bachelor’s Integrated Master’s and Dual Degree Programmes (entry at the 10+2 level) in IITs and ISM will be dependent on the candidate’s performance in this examination. JAB will be the final authority to decide in all matters related to JEE (Advanced) 2016 and admission to IITs and ISM.

All Indians and foreign nations who fulfil the eligibility criteria can appear in JEE Advanced.

The exam consists of two papers, Paper I and Paper II, three hours durations each. The schedule for them would be as follows:

Paper I: May 22 (9 am to 12 pm)

Paper II: May 22 (2 pm to 5 pm)

The candidates can check the detailed schedule as follows:

  • JEE (Main) 2016 (offline exam): April 3
  • Results of JEE (Main) April 27
  • Registration for JEE (Advanced): April 29 to May 4
  • JEE (Advanced) exam: May 22
  • Online display of ORS and scanned responses: June 1 to June 4
  • Date of request from candidates for review of scanned responses: June 1 to June 4
  • Availability of Answer Keys online: June 5
  • Date for receiving feedback and comments on answer keys from the candidates: June 5 to June 7
  • Declaration of results online: June 12
  • Online registration of Architecture Aptitude Test: June 12 to June 13
  • Declaration of result of AAT: June 19
  • Seat Allotment ( Tentative): June 20 to July 19

For further details candidates should refer to the official website.

Admissions open for Various Full- Time Programmes of JNU

JNU Admission Notification

Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) has invited applications for admissions to MPhil/ PhD(Full time) for the 2015-2016 session. Those eligible can apply for admission through the prescribed format with on or before March 21, 2016.

The programmes are being offered by various schools of the university, including

    • School of International Studies,
    • School of Language, and Literature and culture Studies,
    • School of Social Sciences,
    • School of Environmental Sciences, and
    • School of Life Sciences
    • School of Arts and Aesthetics.
    • School of Environmental Sciences
    • School of Computer and System Sciences
    • School of Physical Sciences
    • School of Computational and Integrative studies
    • School of Biotechnology
    • Centre for Sanskrit Studies
    • Centre for Molecular Medicine
    • Centre for Study of Law and Governance

All the programmes offered by this varsity are interdisciplinary.

The educational qualification required to apply for these courses is that the candidate must be an Engineering Graduate/ MCA/ MSc. or equivalent/ Diploma holders.

Important dates to apply to this programme are:

Date of issue of Offline Application: February 10, 2016

Last date of issue of offline Application: March 10, 2016

Those eligible can apply on or before March 21, 2016 along with the necessary documents and application fees.

For Further details candidates should refer to the official website.

News Box: Stay ahead of time; get important information from Education Sector

It is very important to stay informed and intimated about every move in the educational sector, if you are preparing for any competitive or entrance exams or in any way associated with it. Disha publication aims at keeping the readers and students well informed about every new development in  educational sector.

Every fortnight, disha releases a new bulletin of important news in Education sector through “News Box”.  We aim at keeping the students updated about every news regarding examinations, admissions, jobs, scholarships, college rankings, schools, syllabus and results. Here are some of the examples of the news covered in “News Box”, this fortnight i.e. from Jan 23 to Feb 6, 2016.

  1. CBSE CTET 2016: Admit cards out

CBSE has released the e-admit card of the candidates for the 9th Edition of Central Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET), to be held on 21st February 2016 (Sunday)

  1. World’s best small universities 2016

Two Indian universities were placed in the list of top 20 ‘World’s Best Small Universities Ranking 2016’ published by the Times Higher Education. The debut list was released in London where IIT Guwahati was placed at the 14th position whereas Savitribai Phule Pune University was placed at the 18th position in the list.

  1. SSC Jobs in February 2016

SSC will be releasing notifications for Combined Graduate Level (CGL) Entrance test- Tier 1 on February 13. The application process starts on 13th February 2016 and last date of submission of applications will be 14th March 2016.

  1. UPSC forms expert committee for seeking public opinion on quotas

UPSC has formed an expert committee to collect public opinions on various issues such as relaxation of age limits and raising the number of attempts in case of SC (Scheduled castes) and ST candidates to appear for the civil services exams.

  1. FCI Direct Recruitment Results

Food Corporation of India (FCI) has released the results of direct recruitment for Cat – III post in west zone. The students can check the results from the site http://fci.gov.in/.


We also release video presentation of news every fortnight. To have a quick look at the significant news from News Box video, click on the links given below:




Click on the given link to read all important fortnightly education news from News Box PDFhttp://bit.ly/1XnmDu


IIT Roorkee invites application for its Doctorate programmes

IIT Roorkee

The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Roorkee has invited applications for admission to its programme of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in several departments for 2016 session. Those eligible and interested should apply online latest by February 29.

Eligibility Criteria:

Candidates should have acquired a Master’s degree in the respective discipline from a recognised university or institute.

The selection will done solely on the candidate’s performance in the written test and the interview.

Candidates can apply online on the following link: http:www.iitr.ac.in/. The candidates can also send the hard copy of the application form along with the required documents to the ‘ PG Admissions Office, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667, Uttarakhand’ through a proper channel so as to reach before the closing date.

General candidates are required to pay application fees of Rs. 200 and OBC, SC and ST candidates are required to pay Rs. 100 for the registration procedure.

Last date to apply is February 29 and the last date for deposit of application fees is March 2. And the last date for receiving the downloaded form is March 4.

For any further queries candidates should refer to the official website.

GIAN finding feet in India but only in technical field

education news

Global Initiative of Academic Networks (GIAN), believed to be much publicised programme to attract foreign faculty to teach for a term in India is slowly gaining ground but primarily in technical education.

Foreign faculty is teaching non-science courses only in four institutes namely- NIIT, Patna , Jamia Milia Islamia, IIT , Kharagpur and IIT, Gandhinagar. Foreign faculty is teaching a course on conservation and architectural heritage of 19th and 20th century. In Jamia Milia Islamia it is teaching a course on ‘Religious Fundamentalism in Global Perspective: Islam, Christianity and Judaism. In IIT Kharagpur a course is already underway on planning and management of cultural heritage sites. In IIT Gandhinagar a course on digitisation for cultural heritage is being taught.

297 courses have found approval by the apex body to be taught by the foreign faculty. 140 courses proposed by various universities/ institutes have been rejected. In case of 32 courses, foreign teachers are yet to confirm their acceptance to spend one term in India. In five other cases, foreign faculty has declined to come.

GIAN is a programme aimed at tapping the talent pool of scientists and entrepreneurs internationally to encourage their engagement with higher education institutes in India to augment the country’s academic resources and elevate country’s scientific and technological capacity to International excellence.

The objective of the programme is to arrange guest lectures by internationally renowned experts. The centre will spend $ 8,000 on each teacher for a term.

SSC Releases CGL Tier-Ii Final Result Notification

Staff Selection Commission (SSC) has released the notification regarding the result of Combined Graduate Level (CGL) examination 2015. The CGL exam 2015 was held on 25th and 26th 2015. Commission will also upload the final answer key, OMR sheet and marks of candidates of SSC CGL on February 12, 2016.

It is advisable to the candidates to take out the print out of their OMR sheets along with the answer key on a payment of Rs. 20 as administrative charges. March 31 will be the last date to avail of this facility.

The candidates will be selected for 8,624 posts. Candidates who have cleared the written examination of SSC CGL Tier II 2015 will be eligible to appear for its interview round to be held on February 27, 2016. The interview is scheduled to fill in 3724 posts and rest of the vacant posts will be directly filled by the candidates as per their marks in scored in written examination. The final result of SSC CGL Tier II 2015 will be declared by third week of April.

The Commission is expected to release the detailed advertisement of CGL Examination 2016 by February 13.

For any further details visit the official website of SSC i.e. SSC CGL Tier II 2015 Notification.

Students all set for Engineering Olympiad

Indian Engineering Olympiad

Engineering students all over the country get ready to participate in the Indian Engineering Olympiad (IEO). The exam is scheduled to be held on February 21, 2016. Candidates can download the hall ticket on February 13, 2016.

Candidates who are in their II, III or IV year of engineering only are eligible to appear in this exam. Those who already graduated cannot appear.

The test will comprise of 50 multiple choice questions across two sections, to be answered in 90 minutes.

Candidates can download the full syllabus from www.engineering.in/syllabus.php

The results of this exam will be declared on March 21. The top three rank holders from each stream of engineering will be awarded with medals, scholarships and excellence certificates. Top 100 rankers in each stream will get scholarships and all those who qualify in this exam will get a participation certificate.

Besides, Indian Engineering Olympiad will sponsor complete Post-graduation tuition fees for all toppers of the seven streams in senior Category (IV year students)

The sponsors of the exam- Gateforum, LoglQuest, Testfunda.com and Yukti are offering scholarships for all qualifying participants.

This year over 1,20,000 students will appear for this exam.


NCERT Declares NTSE Results

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has declared the results of National Talent Search Examinations (NTSE).

To check the results visit the official website the link for which is http://www.ncert.nic.in.

The candidates can check the results by following the steps given below:

  • Go to the official website.
  • Click on the link, ‘Declaration of NTS-2015 result of withheld candidates’
  • Enter the roll number, date of birth and security code.

The result will be displayed on the screen on submitting the above details. It is advisable that the candidates take out a print out of the same for any future reference.

NTSE is a national-level scholarship programme of India. Students who qualify in the first stage are eligible to appear for the national level. At the national level the examination is held in two parts for nominating the required number of candidates. Indian students studying overseas can participate in the NTSE at the second stage directly.

The exam comprises of two parts namely;

  • Part –I: Mental Ability Test (MAT) + Language ( English/ Local Language)
  • Part-II: Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)

The results of the first stage of the exam are declared between February to April, varying from state to state. For the second stage results are declared in between July to September.

Answer Keys of the UP TET now available online

Answer Key for UP TET 2016

The answer keys for the Uttar Pradesh Teacher Eligibility Test (UP TET) for paper 1 and paper 2 has been published on the official website. The final answer keys will be released on February 25. Candidates can check the answer key from the official website: http://uptet.co.in.

UP TET was conducted on February 2 at about 1,128 centres. Over 9 lakh students appeared in this eligibility test conducted by the Uttar Pradesh government for recruitment of primary teachers in the state.

Eligibility criterion for appearing in the UPTET is graduation with a minimum of 50 per cent marks. Eligibility requirement for primary teachers is a two year diploma in special education (D.ED) . For upper primary class the requirement is graduation along with one year degree in elementary education (B.El.ED).

Those possessing the professional degrees like B.E, B.Tech, BCA and BBA cannot apply for this examination.

This exam qualifies the candidates to teach primary (classes 1 to 5) and upper primary (classes 6 to 8) in any government school and also to take part in privately operated schools in Uttar Pradesh. UP TET certification is valid for a period of five years; however those interested can reappear anytime.

VITEEE: Last Date for Applying is February 29

Vellore Institute of Engineering Entrance Exam (VITEEE) has opened registrations and the last date for receiving applications is February 29. It is to be noted that VITEEE is a national level engineering entrance examination, conducted by the VIT University for Admissions to various B.Tech programmes offered by it. Those interested can apply for the exam by visiting the official website.

The exam will be conducted between April 6 -17 at various locations across the country.

This year English has been added as a new section in the syllabus.


Those aspiring to appear for the entrance examination should have secured an aggregate of 60 per cent in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics/Biology in the qualifying Examination (+2/ Intermediate). The average marks obtained in the subjects , Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics / Biology(PCM/PCB) in Class 12( or its equivalent) put together should be 50 per cent for those belonging to SC/ST and North-Eastern States category. Candidates who have studied in regular, full time and formal education can also apply.

VITEEE is a Computer Based Test (CBT). The paper will have questions from Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics/ Biology and English.

The exam will be conducted in three sessions i.e. Session I, Session II and Session III. The timings for each session are:

Session I: 9 am to 11:30 am

Session II: 12:30 pm to 3 pm

Session III: 4 pm to 6:30 pm

The tentative results will be declared on April 29 on its official website.

No Tension with Pension

A recent study by United Nations Population Division highlighted that World’s life expectancy is expected to reach 75 years by 2050 from present level of 65 years. The improved health and sanitation conditions across the world have ensued better life span, thereby adding to the number of post-retirement years. Thus, rising cost of living, inflation and life expectancy make retirement planning essential part of today’s life. The traditional and best approach to achieving retirement security consists of a pension, which helps to maintain a middle-class standard of living, and retirement savings provides important supplemental income for unforeseen expenses.

The money you save in a pension builds up into a pot which provides a secure means of monthly income to older people, especially the underprivileged and the weak. The amount, though small, proves useful as it means less dependence on the family and greater dignity and confidence. It relieves them of the worries of daily existence in old age and the need to work to provide for daily food and necessities.

Pension, a fixed sum to be paid regularly to a person, typically is a form of retirement plan that provides monthly income to employees of companies or governments that offer such plans. Two primary types of pension plans include defined-benefit plans and defined-contribution plans. With defined-benefit plans, the employer guarantees that the employee will receive a definite benefit amount upon retirement, regardless of how well the underlying investment pool performs. With defined-contribution plans, the employer makes predefined contributions for the employee, but the final amount of benefit that the employee receives depends on the investments’ performance.

The amount that an individual’s pension provides is typically based on the number of years the employee has worked for the company or government offering the plan, the employee’s age at retirement, and the employee’s compensation, either at retirement or over some other period determined by the plan.

Worldwide, the quality of pension systems available to workers varies greatly. While pension reforms in most countries initially are driven by the budgetary difficulties of supporting costly public pension systems, the longer term problems of ageing of the population and social change, including breakdown of traditional family support for old age income security, are equally important factors. Worldwide, pension systems are under more pressure than ever before because of rising life expectancies, increased government debt, uncertain economic conditions, inflation risk, and a shift towards defined contribution plans.

India has a large number of young people, but as the population grows, it is expected to add a substantial number of elderly people. By 2050, those 60-79 will make up 21 per cent of the population and those over 80 an additional 15 per cent. Also, the absence of a country-wide social security system (formal pension coverage being about 12% of the working population), while the ageing and social change are important considerations for introducing pension reform in the unorganised sector, fiscal stress of the defined benefit pension system was the major factor driving pension reforms for employees in the organised public sector (Government employees).

Almost 400 million people (more than 85% of the working population in India) work in the unorganized sector. Of these, at least 120 million are women and the majority had no access to any formal old age income security scheme. Tenuous labour market attachment, intermittent incomes, poor access to social security renders the unorganized workers highly vulnerable to economic shocks during their working lives.

Today, major retirement schemes in India include provident fund, gratuity and pension schemes. The first two schemes provide lump sum retirement benefit while the last one makes payment in the form of monthly annuity. These schemes are characterized by the following common features i.e. they are mandatory, occupation based, earnings related, and have embedded insurance cover against disability and death. There are three major components to the Indian pension system: civil servants pension, the mandatory pension programs run by the Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation of India and the unorganised sector pension.

India, like most other developing countries, does not have a universal social security system to protect the elderly against economic deprivation. Perhaps, persistently high rates of poverty and unemployment act as a deterrent to institute a pay-roll tax financed state pension arrangement for each and every citizen attaining old age. Instead, India has adopted a pension policy that largely hinges on financing through employer and employee participation. This has however restricted the coverage to the organized sector workers only.

Private sector workers are less fortunate and until recently had access only to a provident fund system and pension plans offered by the Life Insurance Corporation of India for their old age income security. The provident fund system, consisting of the Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF) and a number of smaller provident funds is the largest benefit program operating in India.

Thus, to provide social security to more citizens the Government of India established Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) in 2003 to develop and regulate pension sector in the country. The National Pension System (NPS) was launched on 1st January, 2004 with the objective of providing retirement income to all the citizens. NPS aims to institute pension reforms and to inculcate the habit of saving for retirement amongst the citizens.

Additionally, to encourage people from the unorganised sector to voluntarily save for their retirement the Central Government launched a co-contributory pension scheme, ‘Swavalamban’ Scheme in the Union Budget of 2010-11. It will be applicable to all citizens in the unorganized sector who join the National Pension System (NPS).


This Article is taken from Disha’s The Knowledge Book.

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 THE MEGA YEARBOOK 2016 - Current Affairs & General Knowledge for Competitive ExamsThe Knowledge Book 2015 for IAS Prelims (CSAT) & Mains (English, Essays, General

Eligibility criteria and registration details of SSC CGL Exam 2016

SSC CGL 2016

The Staff Service Commission (SSC) is conducting the Combined Graduate Level (CGL) examination for various positions in ministries, departments and organisations which will be held across the country from May 8 and May 22, 2016.

The conditions mandatory for the candidates to fulfil to be eligible to apply in the SSC CGL Exam 2016 are:

  • Bachelors’s/ Graduation degree from a recognized University / College/ Institute.
  • Applicant must be citizen of India and fall in the specified age limit. The Date of Birth recorded in the Matriculation/ Secondary Examination Certificate will only be considered valid. Maximum age limit is relaxed for the candidates from the reserved category.

The application form for the SSC CGL will be released on February 13, 2016. The Commission will release both the advertisement and the application form on its official website. Those aspiring are advised to read the detailed advertisement before applying. Application can be filled either online or offline mode. Application will be accepted through one mode only. Multiple application will be rejected.

Last date for submitting the application is March 14 2016. Those sending offline they are required to send to the concerned Regional / Sub-Regional office of the Commission on or before the last date.

The application fees are Rs.100; it is to be deposited through the Central Recruitment Fee Stamps (CRFS)/ SBI Challan/ Debit Card/ Credit Card/ Net Banking. Women applicants/ SC/ ST candidates, those who are physically handicapped and ex-servicemen are exempted from paying the application fees.

SELECTION PROCEDURE: A candidate has to go through the following stages as per the selection procedure laid down by the Staff Selection Commission:

  • Written examination-Tier-I
  • Written examination-Tier-II
  • Personality test/ interview
  • Medical examination

The written examination will be consisting of two stages-Tier-I and Tier-II as per the schedule. Tier-I exam will be held on May 8 and May 22nd 2016 and Tier-II will be held on August 13 and August 14 2016. Those who qualify the Tier-I exam will be eligible to appear in Tier-II exam in August. Both the exams will be objective based test.

Following are important dates for SSC CGL Exam:

Application process begins 13 February, 2016
Last date of submission of application 14 March, 2016
Date of SSC CGL Tier-I Exam 8 May and 22 May 2016
Date of SSC CGL Tier-II Exam 13 August and 14 August 2016


Books for SSC CGL Exam 2016:

Guide to SSC Sub-Inspector Recruitment Exam with 2012-15 Solved Papers 3rd EditionSSC Combined Graduate Level (Tier I & Tier II) Exam 101 Speed Tests with 5 Practice Sets










Click Here to download free study material for SSC CGL 2016

How to prepare for MAT February 2016

Preparation Tips

Management Aptitude Test (MAT) test based on computer will be held from February 13, 2016 onwards.

The MAT exam will have five sections. Each section has 40 questions. The sections are as follows:

  • Language comprehension-30 mins
  • Mathematical skills-40 mins
  • Data Analysis and Sufficiency-35 mins
  • Intelligence and critical reasoning-30 mins
  • Indian and global environment -15 mins

There is penalty for wrong answer. Each correct answer carries one mark whereas for each wrong answer 0.25 marks will be deducted.

  • Candidates should attempt only those questions of which they are sure of.
  • Although there is a lot of stress on accuracy but allotted time should be used wisely. Candidates should practice a lot to make themselves familiar with the mechanics of the test.
  • Read all the directions carefully; they carry exactly what each set of questions requires to answer the questions given.
  • Before answering any question you should be clear about what is being asked.
  • Practice MAT mock tests and solve them within the allotted time so as to be able to learn time management.
  • Candidates should not waste time pondering over difficult questions; they should first attempt the questions they find easy.

MAT is a standardised test administered since 1988 to facilitate business schools to screen candidates for admission to MBA and allied programmes.

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Women in India —Kitchen to Cosmos

The woman of modern India has evolved and experienced a wide range of social and ideological roles. Ranging from the deity Goddess in form of Durga and Kali to a rape victim, the woman in India has emerged as a subject to ponder on. Several feminist movements have time and again emphasized on the need of woman empowerment and special treatment of women in this male dominant world. As they struggle hard to prove their professional capability in the modern world they become a prey to constant exploitation and male’s sexual advances. However, the advent of modernization has brought in its trail new hopes for women to venture outside their doorsteps and explore the outside world by means of knowledge and learning. Modern women have proved that they are second to none, whether it is home or their workplace. The age-old belief that women are mere kitchen-keeper is now in shambles. Women like Mother Teresa, Indira Gandhi, Saina Nehwal, Bachendri Pal, Reita Faria, Kiran Bedi, Kalpana Chawla, Mary Kom and many more have bench marked their position in society.

There was a time when women in India were worshipped and revered for their qualities of care, alertness, intuition and comforting. They were visualized in deities like Saraswati, Kali, Durga and Laxmi. The societal evils like sati pratha and female foeticide were abolished and strict laws were made to detain any such practice. Even at that time there were strong women like Rani Laxmibai, Chand Bibi, Razia Sultana who set example for the present as well as coming generation. We have examples of male like Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Mahatma Gandhi who understood the importance of women in the mainstream.

The dominant role of women as home-makers restricts the life of a woman from all sides. This brings her to the pity of her husband for economic needs. She feels neglected and lacking confidence when compared to a working woman. Her role as a home-maker, the sacrifices and contributions she make highly unrecognized are often, women do not realize that they are subjugated in Indian family system. They bear the beatings and penance of their husband and in-laws as a token of love and sacrifice. Even the mothers instead of teaching their daughters to stand up for their rights guide them to be tolerant and submissive. This takes the shape of a viciouscircle which is passed on from one generation to another and ultimately women forget their basic rights and cannot access liberty.

Women like Mahashweta Devi, Arundhati Roy, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak have continuously revolted and worked towards the upliftment of women and their downtrodden situation in India. Gone are the days when women were understood as liabilities. The role of women in the modern world has changed tremendously. They have not only come out of the shackles of four walls but are also contributing fully to the economic sector. Their role as a wife is now extended to a partner in all spheres. Men seek advice of their mother, sister and wife in modern society. Every workplace in today’s world requires women for its proper functioning. The entry of women in the corporate has enabled in them not only confidence but they now are equipped with better sensibility and cognizant towards their partners.

The only hurdle she has to face is the claim that she neglects her duties towards her children and family. Though in the midst of this vivid picture, mutual understanding and contribution between both the parents can lead to a peaceful and successful family ahead that ultimately makes the nation better.


This Article is taken from Disha’s The Knowledge Book.

To read more such articles, Visit our books:

 THE MEGA YEARBOOK 2016 - Current Affairs & General Knowledge for Competitive ExamsThe Knowledge Book 2015 for IAS Prelims (CSAT) & Mains (English, Essays, General

Download the admit card of IAF AFCAT

Download Admit Card

The admit cards for IAF (Indian Air Force) AFCAT (Air Force Entrance Test) have been released. The candidates who have applied for the same can download it from the official website, careerairforce.nic.in. The exam is scheduled to be conducted on February 21.

AFCAT is conducted twice a year (February and August). After clearing the AFCAT he/she will be called for SSB (Services Selection Board). After recommendation by the SSB, candidates have to undergo medical fitness tests conducted by Air Force medical authorities. There is no standard cut off for selection. It varies depending upon various factors like the number of vacancies etc.

The result on declaration will be uploaded on the official website.

  • The photograph to be pasted on the admit card is to be self-attested. The candidates should not sign on the face of the photograph.
  • The candidates are required to preserve their admit card for complete cycle of selection. Duplicate admit card will not issued. The candidates should retain their admit card for complete cycle of selection. The admit card will be required at the time of SSB testing.

The duration of the exam will be 2 hours. The paper will consist of 100 questions. It will be an objective test consisting of the following: General; Awareness, Verbal Ability in English, Reasoning and Military Aptitude.

AFCAT is conducted by the Indian Air Force for selection of officers in all branches of the IAF( except medical and dental ) Flying Branch ( Short Service Commission only), Technical Branch (Permanent Commission and short Service Commission) and Duty Branch( permanent commission and short service commission)

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CBSE CTET 2016:Important points to be considered before taking up the exam


The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Delhi will be conducting Central Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET) on February 21, 2016. Candidates should follow the following instructions before entering the exam hall:

  • Report on time: The examination halls will open 90 minutes before the commencement of the test. The candidate should report 90 minutes before the examination. A candidate who comes after the commencement of the exam shall not be permitted to sit in the exam. If the candidate is not able to report on time due to any reason i.e. traffic jam, train/bus delay are likely to miss some of the general instructions to be announced in the examination hall.
  • Admit card: The candidate must show, the admit card downloaded from the CTET official website for admission in the examination room/hall. A candidate who does not possess the valid Admit card shall not be permitted to sit for the exam by the centre superintendent.
  • Sit on allotted seat: A seat indicating roll number will be allocated to each candidate. Candidates are required to sit on the seats allotted to them. Any candidate found guilty of changed room or seat his candidature shall be cancelled.
  • Maintain decorum: Smoking, chewing gutka, spitting in the examination hall is strictly prohibited. Tea, coffee, cold drinks or snacks are not allowed to be taken into the examination rooms during examination hours.

Candidates are not allowed to carry the following items to the examination hall/ room:

  • Textual material: any stationery item like textual material, bits of paper, geometry/pencil box, plastic pouch, calculator, pen, scale, writing pad, pen drives, eraser, calculator, log table, electronic pen/ scanner, cardboard etc.
  • Communication devices: Any communication device like mobile phones, Bluetooth, earphones, microphone, pager, health band etc.
  • Any wrist watch/ watch, camera, wallet, goggles, handbags etc.
  • Any other item which could be used for unfair means and for hiding communication devices like camera, Bluetooth device etc.

Candidates will not be allowed to leave his/ her seat before the full duration of the paper, without the special permission of the centre superintendent or the invigilator. Candidates should not leave the room/ hall without handing over their answer sheets to the invigilator on duty and sign the attendance sheet second time. If a candidate do not sign the attendance sheet second time it will be deemed not to have handed over the OMR Sheet and will be dealt with as an unfair means.

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Chemistry collaboration between UK and India towards Newton-Bhabha Fund workshop

education news

Royal Society of Chemistry (UK) will invest Rs 2.5 crore in India to establish six Newton-Bhabha Fund workshops co-funded by the British Council. Indian and UK scientists will work together to overcome major global challenges. Royal Society of Chemistry (UK) Professor Dominic Tildesley made this announcement at Punjab University on Wednesday.

The workshops will focus on chemical science work in the fields of human health, environment and sustainability and energy. Leading Indian universities such as IIT-Delhi, IIT Madras and IIT Mandi and those from UK such as Cambridge, Nottingham and Cardiff will be involved in the project.

Tildesley also added that Royal Society of Chemistry is also re-signing a cooperation agreement with the Chemical Research society of India (CRSI), at the 10th RSC-CRSI symposium held in Chandigarh this week.

Royal Society of Chemistry is the world’s leading chemistry community, advancing excellence in the chemical sciences.

HPBOSE releases class 12 date sheet

HPBose 2016 Class 12th datesheet

The Himachal Pradesh Board of School Education (HPBOSE) has released its class 12 date sheet. The date sheet is available on its official website.

The HPBOSE will be holding exams from March 4 to March 29.

The duration of the exam would be 3 hours and 15 minutes (8:45am-12pm).

The candidates can check the date sheet given below:

4.03.16 ENGLISH
9.03.16 HISTORY
10.03.16 ECONOMICS
14.03.16 GEOGRAPHY
15.03.16 HINDI
28.03.16 SANSKRIT
29.03.16 SOCIOLOGY

For further details the candidates can visit the official website

Life, Death & Hope in Slums

Today every human being requires basic amenities to survive in this tough world. Food, shelter and clothing are the first preferences for them. With increase in development of rural areas into urban areas there is also a rapid increase in population of people resulting in slums.

Slums are basically the homes of the poor people which provide minimum shelter. Earlier slums used to be on the outskirts of towns but now they are in towns making the places quite congested with high density of population. Today people living in slum areas hardly enjoy even the basic amenities. Some people have single room but mostly people live in huts made up of mud, the roof and ceilings are made from metal, scraps of wood, gunny sacks, or some sort of waste material. At times 10-12 people live, eat and sleep in the same house. The lanes are narrow and people use common latrines and water taps. The provision of water, sanitation, garbage collection and health care is inadequate which creates the conditions where infectious and parasitic diseases thrive and spread. The sewage water stagnates in open surface drains, which emit bad smell. The children are often found playing in places where the drains are used as open latrines. Living conditions in many urban slums are worse than those in the poorest rural areas of the country resulting in exceptionally unhealthy environment and due to which serious environmental diseases are transmitted through insects, soil, air, food, water, soil. Most of the slum population suffers from one or more diseases associated with inadequate provision of water and sanitation. Their Living conditions are extremely difficult and slum dwellers are always scared of having their homes bulldozed in municipal ‘slum clearance’ efforts.

The reasons of growth of slums are due to poor utilization of the reproductive child health services provided by the government, marriage at young age, lack of awareness regarding birth spacing, very low use of contraceptives, illiteracy. Another reason is migration from rural areas to more developed areas by people looking to earn more through higher-paying manual labour compared to the low-returns life of agriculture.

By the year 2001 it was recorded that only 65 per cent slums are literate, though in Chennai the slums are 80 per cent which is above the national average. Education is provided free to slum children but still the dropout rates are high and most of students do not continue studying after their 8th standard. Children those become literate lack in suitable educational levels for further studies. When one considers the status and living standards of slums of India, sometimes it becomes difficult to consider them as human settlements. Slums are looked upon as lower form of life. In 2001, slum population in India stood as high as 40,297,341 which was about 4 per cent of the total Indian population and out of which 22 per cent of the slums dwell in the cities.

Amongst the states, Maharashtra is leading with slum population of 10,644,605 which is followed by Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Goa stands at the bottom in list, Mumbai has about 49 per cent of its population living in slums covering only six per cent of Mumbai’s land. Even globally, the number of slum residents is rising due to increasing population. Today almost one billion people worldwide live in slums and by 2030 the figure is likely to double.

A common characteristic feature of slums across the world is the low socioeconomic status of its residents, most of whom employ them in the informal economy. This can include domestic work, street vending, human trafficking and drug dealing. Some of them recycle trash of different kinds from household garbage and electronics for a living. They either sell the odd usable goods or strip broken goods for parts or raw materials.

Many governments have attempted to solve the problems of slums by clearing away old houses and replacing it with modern housing with much better sanitation. In some countries, the situation has been addressed by rescuing rural property rights to support traditional sustainable agriculture.  There is a growing movement to demand a global ban of slum clearance programs and other forms of mass evictions.


This Article is taken from Disha’s The Knowledge Book.

To read more such articles, Visit our books:

 THE MEGA YEARBOOK 2016 - Current Affairs & General Knowledge for Competitive ExamsThe Knowledge Book 2015 for IAS Prelims (CSAT) & Mains (English, Essays, General

Sig Admissions: Last Date For Submission Of Application Is February 15

The Symbiosis Institute of Geoinformatics (SIG) Pune has invited applications for admission to Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Geoinformatics for the session beginning in 2016. Those eligible can apply latest by February 15. Candidate’s performance in the personal interview and academic performance and written examination will be the le criteria for selection. The candidate must be a graduate in Engineering, IT, Computer Science, Science, Agriculture, Management, Geography and Commerce with a minimum of 50 per cent marks from a recognised university. Those appearing for final year exams can also apply. Those eligible should apply online; the link being sig.ac.in. The candidates are required to submit the hard copy of the application form along with the required documents to: Symbiosis Institute of Geoinformatics 5th Floor, Atur Center, Gokhale Cross Road, Model Colony, Pune-411016 The application fees of Rs. 1,000 can be sent through a Demand Draft drawn in favour of “The Director, Symbiosis Institute of Geoinformatics  payable at Pune. The last date of submission of application form is February 15. Date of personal interview/written ability test would be February 20 and February 21.

BHU Invites Application to Admission to Undergraduate and Post Graduate Programmes


The Banaras Hindu University (BHU) has send notification for the sale of application forms and related information bulletin for admission to various Undergraduate and Postgraduate courses and Special course of study for the academic session 2016. Those interested can apply online latest by February 29.

The eligibility criteria for different programmes are as follows:

Undergraduate Programme: Candidates must have passed class 12 from a recognised board or institute. The candidate will be selected on the basis of their performance in the Undergraduate Entrance Test (UET 2016).

Postgraduate Programme: Candidate must be a graduate in a relevant discipline from a recognised university or institute. The candidate’s age should not be more than 22 years as on July 1, 2016.The selection will be done on the the basis of the Postgraduate Entrance Test (PET2016).

Benaras Hindu University offers the following programmes:

  • BA(Honours)
  • BA(Honours) (Arts and Social)
  • B.Com(Honours)
  • B.Com(Honours) Financial
  • B.Sc
  • B.ED
  • B.ED (Special)(VI/HI)
  • LLB
  • B.F.A
  • B.PED
  • M.A
  • M.Com
  • M.Sc
  • M.Ed
  • L.L.M (Honours)
  • MCA
  • M.P.Ed
  • M.P.A
  • M.F.A


The university also conducts exam for admission to courses in performing arts and for Sanskrit Vidya Dharma VijnanShastri, which is a three year honours course.

Eligible and interested candidates should apply online, the link being www.bhu.ac.in

Last date for online submission of application forms: February 29.

Date of UET-2016: April 10 to May 5

Date of PET-2016: April 10 to June 10

BHU ranks among the first few in the country in the field of academic and research output. This university has two campuses, 3 institutes, 16 faculties, 140 departments, 4 advanced centres and 4 interdisciplinary schools. It has nearly 20,000 students from 34 countries under single roof.

Results of TISSNET 2016 announced on February 2

Tata Institute of Social Sciences National Entrance Test (TISSNET) has announced the results of Computer based National Entrance Test. Candidates who appeared for the exam can check it from the official website www.appln-admissions.tiss.edu.

The exam was held on January 9 in 39 centres located in different parts of the country. It was conducted for admission to Masters in Social Work and various other Masters programmes offered in TISS campuses at Mumbai, Tuljapur, Guwahati, IMHST Chennai, MHAT Calicut and G-SET Ranchi.

TISSNET is a computer based entrance exam comprising of objective questions based on Social Sensitivity, Logical Reasoning, Analytical Ability and knowledge of contemporary issues. The exam’s duration is one hour and 40 minutes. The marks distribution was as follows: General Awareness-40 marks, English Proficiency-30 marks, Maths and Logical Reasoning-30 marks. There was no negative marking for wrong answers in the test.

The Pre-Interview Test and Personal Interview rounds will be held from March 10 to April 8.

Going Google

From names of individual persons and petty kitchen items to profound research subjects and world histories, sciences, arts and commerce, which apparently seems unbound here which precisely means from anything to everything we need not go out searching today, we just need to sit and google it. Google is more than a word today — it is the allegorical Bible or even more. That’s what it is; a click from google could exactly lead us to anywhere we wish. It has become a household word, a household activity and a household presence worldwide. In other words, it is omniscientand omnipotent, blasphemyapart. Alight in any country, google will convert the currencies; want to make a bomb, google will teach; want to party, google will make it organised; want to shop, google gives the options; want to learn any darn thing on earth, a click of google is what it needs. In matters relating to google, anything means anything; Google is bosom to everything. It seems brass-necked to admit that to know about google, we have to google again indeed. In a nutshell, adjectives cannot circumscribe the power and attributes of the kingdom called Google.

All apart, it must be stated that Google is today 16 years old. It has dragged itself by a tedious journey beginning with the domain registration to evolving search to double click to YouTube to Android, automated cars, Google Glass to balloons beaming down the internet.

To define Google, it must be said that it is an American multinational corporation specialising in internet-based services and products which comprise of online advertising technologies, search, cloud computing and software. Bulk of Google’s profit comes from AdWords, an online advertising service.

It was in 1995 when two Ph.D students, namely Larry Page and Sergey Brin met at Stanford University and began collaborating on a search engine called BackRub, as part of their research project in 1996 a new chapter opened. The BackRub project operated on Stanford for more than a year, but eventually took up a lot of bandwidth. In 1997, Google.com was registered as a domain. And the name was retrieved with a play on the almost eponymous word “googol”, which basically is a mathematical term for the number represented by the numeral 1 followed by 100 zeros. Apparently, this kind of nomenclature makes cogent of the fact that Larry and Sergey were verily in a mission to organise a seemingly infinite amount of information on the web.

Larry launched a monthly “Google Friends Newsletter” in April, 1998 to inform fans about company news. On September 4, 1998, the company called Google. Inc files for incorporation in California. Both Larry and Sergey opened a bank account for the first time in the freshly entrenched company’s name. Then they hired their first employee, Craig Silverstein, who was their fellow CS grad student at Stanford. He worked with Google for more than ten years. Google’s workspace was then confined only to a garage of one, Susan Wojcicki at Santa Margarita Avenue, Menlo Park, California. In Februray, 1999 they moved their office at 165 University Avenue in Palo Alto with only eight employees. Then in the same year, they hired their first man to run the sales, Omid Kordestani and also a chef by the name, Charlie Ayers.

In April, 2000, Google announces the MentalPlex, which enables it to read people’s minds as the person tries to visualise the search results he wants. The same year May, Google wins the first Webby Awards: Technical Achievment (voted by judges) and People’s Voice (voted by users). Google’s first doodle celebrates Bastille Day in France in July, 2000. In October, Google AdWords was launched with 350 customers and in December Google Toolbar was released, which was actually a browser plug-in that makes it possible to search without visiting the Google homepage. March, 2001 saw Eric Schmidt becoming the chairman of the Google Board of Directors and in the same year, July Google Images was launched for the first time offering access to over 250 million images. In August, same year Google opens its first international office in Tokyo, Japan. In September, 2002 Google News was launched with access to 4000 news sources. Today, Google News is comprised of more than 50000 news sources with 70 regional editions in different languages. Froogle, the Google Shopping site was launched in December, 2002 permitting people search for stuff to buy.

In January, 2004, Google launches Orkut, which in its heyday became the most indispensable social network in several countries. The Google office moves to 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California, which is also their present headquarters, with more than 800 employees now. Gmail, the most popular among e-mail providers today, was launched by Google on the April Fool’s Day, 2004. Picasa, which helps people organise and display photos online, is the most appealing software among users today. It was acquired by Google.Inc in July, 2004. Google Hong Kong office becomes the first of its kind in the Greater China region in September, 2004. Google.org was launched in December same year. In February, 2005, Google Maps goes live and two months later, Google adds satellite views and directions to the product and later again, Google Maps began appearing even in mobile phones. During the end of the same year, Google also launches Gmail for mobile users in the United States.

The most crucial of all inventions by Google was the announcement of Android, the first open platform for mobile devices in Novemeber, 2007. The first mobile phone built on the Android Operating system G1 was announced by T-Mobile in September, 2008 and along with this, Google Chrome also becomes available for download at the same hour. In 2009, simultaneously Voice Search was launched for Android, Google Voice was also introduced for the first time and later that year, Google Maps Navigation begins using 3D views, voice guidance and live traffic data. In January, 2010 Google introduces for the first time Nexus One to show what’s possible on the Android devices. The Nexus devices have since grown and now they include all tablets as well as phones. May, 2010 saw Google TV being built on Android and Chrome, which started providing an easy and fast way to navigate to television channels, websites, apps, shows and movies.

In April, 2011, Larry Page took over as the new CEO of Google and Eric Schmidt becomes the executive chairman. Finally in the list of Google’s indefinitely umpteen achievements, September, 2013 recorded Android passing over 1 billion device activations, which brought to book the quality of work of the entire Android ecosystem and along with that, the enthusiasm of users all around the world. Off late, Google has launched a new company by the name Calico with Arthur D. Levinson as the CEO to maintain its primary strategy of focusing on health and well-being. Google is what it is today because of its highest adaptability at all costs, all environments and all businesses. It has rolled a lot to reach the pedestal over which it is standing today, thanks to the brainchild of the pioneers and the workmen. A rag-to- riches fable, today that’s what is Google.

This Article is taken from Disha’s The Knowledge Book.

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Jee Main 2016: CBSE Records 9% Dip In Applications


There is a significant dip in the registrations for Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) Main 2016. About one lakh fewer students have registered for JEE Main as compared to the total number of students who had registered in 2015.

Going by the official data in 2015, 13.03 lakh students had applied for JEE Main in 2015, while the total number of registrations for JEE Main is 12.07 lakh.

JEE Main has been witnessing a dip since 2015, when a total number of registrations declined by 50,000 as compared to 2014, when the figure was 13.56 applications for JEE Main.

In 2015, 13.03 lakh aspirants appeared for this national level exam for admissions to 31 NIT’s 18 IIT’s and 18GFTI’s; the participating institutes of JEE Main.

This year IIT’s will allow top 2 lakh qualifying students of JEE Main to appear for JEE Advanced 2016; a second stage of entrance to IIT’s and ISM.

Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) is an all India common engineering entrance examination conducted for admission to various engineering colleges and courses all over the country. JEE Main is considered to be one of most coveted exams for those aspiring for engineering; it is first round of examinations for admission to various prestigious engineering institutes like Indian Institute of Technology (IIT’s) and Indian School of Mines (ISM) Dhanbad.

JEE Main is conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE).  Over 150,000 students are selected each year.


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AIMA MAT February 2016: Admit Cards Out

AIMA has released the admit card for all the aspirants on its official website. AIMA will conduct the Management Aptitude Test (MAT) exam on 7th February and 13th February 2016 for paper based and Computer based test respectively. Aspirants can check and download it from the official website.

The Management Aptitude Test (MAT) is a standardised test administered to facilitate various Business schools (B-Schools) to screen candidates for admission to MBA and allied programmes. The B-Schools consider the MAT Score as an admission input based on the Score cards issued to the candidates across domestic and international schools.

AIMA conducts MAT exam twice a year for all the aspirants across the country. This year the AIMA is conducting the MAT exam in February. Those who had applied can download the admit card and take the printout of it and will be required to carry it to examination hall.


  • Visit the official website www.aima.in
  • Click the tab ‘Testing”
  • Click on the link ‘Download Admit Card for Mat Feb 2016
  • Enter the required details like name, form number, date of birth and submit.
  • The admit card will be displayed on the screen.
  • Save and take a printout of it for further reference.

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Cbse To Launch Pre-Exam Counselling Session Begins: All You Need To Know

The Central Board of Secondary Education has launched a pre-exam tele-counselling facility for students who will be appearing for Board exams. Even the parents of the aspirants can avail of this facility. The session will commence from 2nd of February.

It is to be noted that this kind of facility is introduced every year by the CBSE to help board students to deal with mental stress and anxiety faced by them during the exams. This facility is offered by principals and trained counsellors from within CBSE affiliated schools located all across the country.

All that the students have to do is to dial a too free number-1800118004 to get centralised access to the CBSE helpline. The aspirants can avail of this facility from 8 am to 10 pm between February 1 and April 22 on all days.

The aspirants can also drop in a mail at counselling.cecbse@gmail.com and sugandh.cbse@gmail.com. A total of 76 principals and trained counsellors from CBSE affiliated government and private schools and a few psychologists are expected to take part in tele-counselling session and will address exam related psychological problems of the students. 60 of them are available in India while 6 are located in Nepal, Japan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, UAE and Kuwait.

The CBSE will also address the needs and anxiety of differently-abled children.

For further details, students can visit the official website of CBSE, www.cbse.nic.in


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MBA or Engineering: what is the right choice?

MBA or Engineering

We are always perplexed when it comes to making career choices. We study with the dream to make a successful career, but when it comes to making choice between the options available, we are confused. Professional journey becomes a juxtaposition of unsolved puzzle. Most of the students are stuck between making the choice between MBA and Engineering.

There is a need to assess the factors which are required to be considered to decide on how students make a career choice. The considerable factors may be passion, inclination for the subject, interest in field etc. Another factors could be compelling job prospects or/ and opportunities of growth. It may be interest or inclination for science, music, sports, art, or any other discipline that is inherent in individuals making choice.

What makes Engineering and Management degree different from other professional degrees? The reasons are few. The faculty, company tie-ups, college infrastructures and affiliations, are some of the reasons that make these disciplines desirable to all. Once you obtain a degree in Engineering or Management, you are ready for the industry, to execute what you have learnt through your profession. With just some training and internship, you are ready to get started with practicing the profession.

Physics, chemistry, maths at intermediate level are basic requisite subjects for Individuals who wish to pursue Engineering. These subjects build the eligibility criteria for entrance exams and qualify individuals for admission.

An addition of post graduate degree to an engineering degree provides knowledge about systems, technical and mechanical procedures that are used in live production. Engineering degree in C Sc and IT has abundant job opportunities due to application of these technologies most of the industries. the popularity of these engineering disciplines has grown to that extent that individuals from traditional engineering disciplines are moving to the these areas.

MBA, can be pursued for a shift towards the level of leadership or administrator. There are individuals who naturally have the ability to work as managers, leaders, decision makers, and administrators. Such individuals take up the decision to pursue MBA to grow as leaders and hold a leading position in an organization. The earlier it is started, the better it is .Since the knowledge and experience is becomes more valuable with the passing number of years in this field.

At the end of the day, Engineering in a good college, MBA or any other professional degree from an average institute can kick start your career. It is entirely based on the individual’s capability, will, hard work, competency that bears fruit. There is no substitute for hard work, perseverance, knowledge, passion and dedication, no matter which degree or profession it may be. To make the most of education / course/ professional degree is entirely upto the individual.

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RRB Non-Tech FREE Computer-based online Mock Test.

Disha Publication presents RRB online test for the aspirants who want to prepare for RRB Non-Technical online Exam 2016. This test will provide you similar experience to that of an online RRB exam. It is meant to give students an opportunity to prepare well, test their knowledge and feel confident while appearing for the Main exam. The Test comprises of 100 questions from Arithmetic Ability, General Intelligence, General Science and General Knowledge, to be answered within the time slot of 90 mins.