Any act,with political/religious or any other objective which causes terror amongst the mass is termed as terrorism. Exploiting human fear to meet political objectives is not a new thing. It has been in practice by many political organizations, religious groups, revolutionaries, ruling governments, nationalist groups and by both right and left-wing political parties. To reach some political, religious or ideological goals, these terror groups use violence or threat to coerce the population or the government. Terrorism bifurcates into two kinds: Political and Criminal. Political creates panic to the mass at larger extent and criminal targets kidnapping for taking heavy ransom or raising unlawful demands.
The impact of terrorism has been world-wide but we see it scattered in groups and often hear of disturbances or blasts in selected states or places. These activities tend to disturb the normal routine of the people and spread its vehement face to create fear and panic in the mindset of the mass.
Terrorism in India
Depending on what their objectives are, terrorism in India is subdivided in four major groups:
This type focuses on underlining the response of one ethnic group against another and also looks forward to creating a separate state within India or independent of India or in a neighbouring nation.
Eg. The insurgent tribal groups in North East India
Charged with religious imperatives, these groups fightfor specific religious groups with their presumed duties and solidarity. Eg. The attack on Taj and MumbaiAttacks on 26/11, by the Islamic terror group of Pakistan is a kind of religious terrorism.
This group opposes the prevalent socio-political structure which according to it creates a disruptive impact on the economy. Their aim henceforth lies in bringing revolutionary changes by means of violence. Eg. Maoist violence in Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh
This group indulges in drug trafficking by creating illegal narcotics traffic zones. Eg. drug violence in northwest India is an example of such type.
Terrorism is an attack on humanity and civilization as a whole. It is an evil and poses a great challenge to the world. The horrific killings of innocent hostages in Syria are the recent turbulence created by the terror group named ISIS. Thousands of people are forced to leave their homes and run away to safe places in Germany and European states.
The Indian states of Jammu & Kashmir, east-central and south-central India (Naxalism) and the Seven Sister States have been in persistent threat of long-term terrorist activities. As per the State Department of the United States, there were 11, 098 terror-caused deaths worldwide while 231 civilians died in the terror attacks in 2012 in India. As many as 800terrorist cells have been operating in India, as per the data collected in August 2008 by the National Security Council.
India is the 4th most terror affected country in the world, with an average of 500persons dying especially due to terrorism every year. It not just affects our economy and degrades our position in the world but also creates insecurity among people.
There is not just financial loss but inflow of foreign funds also gets reduced, once we face such threats. This affects our tourism industry to a great extent and thereby the country’s economy faces a setback.
With no respect for any religion, no ideology and no nation, terrorism is a malady which has been prevailing in India since long, making it one of its oldest victims. The rise of Islamic state (IS) militants in West Asia is a threatening call to India’s security and might also cause unrest in the subcontinent. Other groups like al-Qaida and Indian Mujahideen are some of the top terror groups which have always focused on creating huge turmoil in Indian states. With no specific boundary, these groups present ugly face of menace. They are very specific of what they want and pose greatest threats to mankind. They know no friends and recognize no rules. Through acts of stray shooting or explosions and their most preferred flight hijacking; they have aimed at spreading dread amongst the masses.
Of all the kinds, political terrorists stand to be the most violent as they are well-trained and pose a great challenge to the law enforcing agencies. Their acts are well-planned under days and months of preparation. Terrorists recruit young people and brainwash them in a manner that they start to believe in the power of bombs and guns. They are taught that dying as a terrorist is a sacred and holy act, which further makes them more determined and willing to do anything and everything under the sun, in order to meet their purposes.
The best example that can be cited here is the training of hundreds of terrorist in Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK). Pakistan also supplies weapons and training to terrorists in Punjab. Assam in the northeast is the sole region affected by terrorism and regional terrorism has proved to be more fatal and violent of all kinds.
The serial explosion of thirteen bombs during the 1993 Bombay Bombings is quoted as one of the deadliest terrorist attacks in India. Considered as the most destructive bomb explosions in India’s history, these explosions were believed to be synchronized by Dawood Ibrahim, a terrorist group leader opposing India.
Terrorism with its different forms in different countries is a war that is neither fought openly nor in a fair manner. Pirates in Somalia have been hijacking lots of ships every now and then to get hefty ransom which has been interrogated by UNO and it has asked the member nations’ participation in combating the terror through active involvement of their respective forces. The brutal attack on Twin Tower in USA in September 2011, followed by an attack by USA in Afghanistan to demolish Mulla Omar’s regime are some of the eye openers for us.
The fight over the common border shared by Afghanistan and Pakistan and the seeking of right by Talibans has seen a series of disruptions in specific zones of the concerned nations.
Steps by government
The recent visit of our Prime Minister to US saw him presenting his concerns over the withdrawal of US troops from Afghanistan. He said that US troops should be withdrawn slowly to stop the rise of Taliban. Also, for the newly formed government in Afghanistan to function democratically; he said that Afghanistan should be allowed to stand on its feet. It was when he rejected any distinction between good and bad terrorism in context to a previous statement by Pakistan over the issue of Afghan Taliban (bad Taliban) vs. Pakistan Taliban (good Taliban).
Many steps have been taken by our government like revamping of the old security steps into new and more complicated security systems at airports. More strict laws like POTA (Prevention of Terrorist activity Act) have been made. POTA is an anti-terrorism legislation which was enacted in 2002 by the Parliament. POTA has replaced the Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance (POTO) of 2001. There has been a reduction of criminal terrorism by 10% after implementation of these measures, though not much difference in political terrorism has been noticed.
Globally what needs to be done?
Being a global threat, terrorism requires a control from the grass roots level to the international level. The world needs to unite as a single power to face this threat that is growing by leaps and bounds. We need to come up with ideas on how to mobilize the world and take concrete actions to mitigate and end this nuisance. Before safeguarding humanity, we need to come to an agreement on what constitutes terrorism and thereby make it defunct step by step.
As our Prime Minister very well quoted at the SAP centre in September this year that United Nations need to define terrorism such that the confusion and delusion amongst people regarding good or bad terrorismgets evaded. Terrorism is terror and can’t be justified by labelling it as good terrorism even if it originates for a cause like asking for one’s religious or social rights. It can’t be distinguished in two parts because it is a massive destruction caused to the people and doesn’t spare anyone or shows any mercy. Today terrorism has become a major global issue which needs to be resolved through the joint effort of each nation. It is time we talk straight and come to terms with the truth rather than citing such illogical quotes. Humanity needs to understand that terrorism involves violent acts which aim to spread threat and anything that feeds upon human blood just to satisfy one’s ego can’t be considerable for categorizations as good or bad. It’s simply venomous and malevolent.